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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to _______

Commission file number: 001-40161

 

DAVE INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

 

Delaware

86-1481509

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

1265 South Cochran Ave

Los Angeles, CA 90019

(844) 857-3283

(Address and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

 

 

 

Class A common stock, par value $0.0001

DAVE

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Redeemable warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock, each at an exercise price of $368 per share

DAVEW

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES NO

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 of the Act. YES NO

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period than the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES NO

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). YES NO

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). YES NO

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

As of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of voting ordinary shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $220.9 million, determined using the per share closing price of $22.02 on The Nasdaq Global Market on June 30, 2022, as adjusted for the 32-for-1 reverse stock split of Dave Inc.’s common stock effected on January 5, 2023. Ordinary shares held by each director and executive officer (and their respective affiliates) and each person who owns 10 percent or more of the outstanding ordinary shares or who is otherwise believed by the registrant to be in a control position have been excluded. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

As of March 1 , 2023, there were 10,337,394 shares of Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value and 1,514,082 shares of Class V common stock, $0.0001 par value, issued and outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III incorporates by reference certain information from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement (the “Proxy Statement”) relating to its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in 2023. The Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.

 

Auditor Firm ID: 34

Auditor Name: Deloitte & Touche LLP

Auditor Location: Los Angeles, CA

 

 

 


DAVE INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

1

 

Basis of Presentation

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 1.

 

Business

 

 

4

 

ITEM 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

 

18

 

ITEM 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

 

44

 

ITEM 2.

 

Properties

 

 

44

 

ITEM 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

 

44

 

ITEM 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

 

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 5.

 

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

 

45

 

ITEM 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

 

45

 

ITEM 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

 

46

 

ITEM 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

 

62

 

ITEM 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

 

63

 

ITEM 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

 

109

 

ITEM 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

 

110

 

ITEM 9B.

 

Other Information

 

 

111

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

 

112

 

ITEM 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

 

112

 

ITEM 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

 

112

 

ITEM 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

 

112

 

ITEM 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

 

112

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITEM 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

 

113

 

ITEM 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

 

116

 

Signatures

 

 

117

 

 

 


CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “report” or this “Annual Report on Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements contained in this report other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations, financial position, market size and opportunity, our business strategy and plans, the factors affecting our performance and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “can,” “expect,” “project,” “outlook,” “forecast,” “objective,” “plan,” “potential,” “seek,” “grow,” “target,” “if” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I, Item 1A of this report and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this report may not occur, and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements contained in this report involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, risks related to:

the ability of Dave to compete in its highly competitive industry;
the ability of Dave to keep pace with the rapid technological developments in its industry and the larger financial services industry;
the ability of Dave to manage its growth as a public company;
the ability of Dave to protect intellectual property and trade secrets;
changes in applicable laws or regulations and extensive and evolving government regulations that impact operations and business;
the ability to attract or maintain a qualified workforce;
level of product service failures that could lead Dave members (“Members”) to use competitors’ services;
investigations, claims, disputes, enforcement actions, litigation and/or other regulatory or legal proceedings;
the ability to maintain the listing of Dave Class A Common Stock on The Nasdaq Stock Market;
the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Dave’s business;
the possibility that Dave may be adversely affected by other economic factors, including rising interest rates, and business, and/or competitive factors; and
other risks and uncertainties described under Item 1A., “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We caution you that the foregoing list of judgments, risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements may not be complete. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Except as required by law, we do not intend to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this report or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations.

1


You should read this report with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

This report contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our products. We obtained the industry, market and similar data set forth in this report from our own internal estimates and research and from industry research, publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including governmental agencies. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. While we believe that the data we use from third parties are reliable, we have not separately verified these data. You are cautioned not to give undue weight to any such information, projections and estimates.

As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, including without limitation, the important factors described in Part I. Item 1A “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

As used in this report, the “Company,” “Dave,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Dave Inc. (f/k/a VPC Impact Acquisition Holdings III, Inc.) and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires.

2


BASIS OF PRESENTATION

On January 5, 2022, we consummated the transactions contemplated by that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of June 7, 2021 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among VPC Impact Acquisition Holdings III, Inc. (“VPCC”), Dave Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Legacy Dave”), Bear Merger Company I Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of VPCC (“First Merger Sub”), and Bear Merger Company II LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of VPCC (“Second Merger Sub” and together with the First Merger Sub, the “Merger Subs”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, First Merger Sub merged with and into Legacy Dave (the “First Merger”), with Legacy Dave being the surviving corporation of the First Merger (the “Surviving Corporation”), and immediately following the First Merger, the Surviving Corporation merged with and into Second Merger Sub (the “Second Merger,” together with the First Merger, the “Mergers” and the Mergers together with the other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement, the “Business Combination”), with Second Merger Sub being the surviving company of the Second Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of VPCC. In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, we changed our name from “VPC Impact Acquisition Holdings III, Inc.” to “Dave Inc.,” and the Surviving Entity operates under the name “Dave Operating LLC.”

The Company’s Class A Common Stock is now listed on The Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “DAVE,” and warrants to purchase the Class A Common Stock at an exercise price of $368 per share are listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “DAVEW.” Prior to the Business Combination, VPCC neither engaged in any operations nor generated any revenue. Until the Business Combination, based on VPCC’s business activities, VPCC was a “shell company” as defined under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).

As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires:

references to the “Company,” “Dave,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Dave Inc. (f/k/a VPC Impact Acquisition Holdings III, Inc.) and its consolidated subsidiaries;
references to “VPCC” are to VPC Impact Acquisition Holdings III, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the close of the Business Combination; and
references to “Sponsor” are to VPC Impact Acquisition Holdings Sponsor III, LLC.

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires, the disclosures in this Item 1 refer to Dave Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries following the consummation of the Business Combination.

Overview

In the story of David vs. Goliath, the small underdog is able to outsmart and defeat his larger adversary. This is the spirit behind the name “Dave.” We have built an integrated and fully digital financial services platform that provides millions of Americans with seamless access to a variety of intuitive financial products at a fraction of the cost and with much greater transparency and higher speed to value than that of the legacy financial services incumbents, such as traditional banks, credit unions, and independent finance companies. Our mission is to build products that level the financial playing field. Our strategy is focused on delivering a superior banking experience for anyone living paycheck to paycheck.

Based on our observation and analysis of Member data, legacy financial institutions charge high fees for consumer banking and other financial services products, which disproportionately burdens tens of millions of Americans who can least afford them. We witness this dynamic playing out with our Members who we believe are on average paying between $300-$400 per year in overdraft fees, maintenance and other fees to their existing bank for basic checking services.

Further, we see a significant opportunity to address the broader short-term credit market. According to a report by The Financial Health Network (“FHN”), legacy financial institutions charge approximately $30 billion in fees annually. The FHN estimates that financially “coping” and “vulnerable” populations pay over $120 billion a year in fees and interest for access to short-term credit.

 

Our prospective Member opportunity is also significant. The FHN estimates that approximately 176 million Americans are “financially vulnerable” or “financially coping” based on financial health scores which reflect spending patterns relative to income, the sufficiency of liquid savings, and the manageability of debt obligations; this figure grew 6% or by 9 million Americans in 2022 as fiscal stimulus impacts waned and as inflationary and interest rate pressures mounted. The FHN study implies that approximately 70% of Americans fall into these low or volatile income and credit-challenged categories, which is up from 66% in 2021, which is the first notable increase in the five years of this FHN study. Similarly, the December 2022 Paycheck to Paycheck Report published by PYMNTS found that, in November 2022, 63%, or approximately 160 million, of all U.S. consumers were living paycheck to paycheck, up from 58% merely six months earlier. Given these dynamics, we estimate that our total addressable market consists of between 160 million to 180 million Americans who are in need of financial stability and are either not served or underserved by legacy financial institutions.

Dave offers a suite of innovative financial products aimed at helping our Members improve their financial health. To help Members avoid punitive overdraft fees and access short-term liquidity, Dave offers cash advances through its flagship 0% interest ExtraCash product. Through Dave Banking, we provide a digital checking account experience, seamlessly integrated with ExtraCash advances, with no hidden fees. With a Dave Banking account, Members have access to valuable tools for building long-term financial health, such as Goals savings accounts and customizable automatic round-up savings on debit spend transactions. We also help Members generate extra income for spending or emergencies through our Side Hustle product, where we present Members with supplemental work opportunities, and through our recently launched Surveys product, where Members can earn supplemental income by taking surveys. Our budgeting tool helps Members manage their upcoming bills to avoid overspending.

Market research conducted by Dave found that legacy financial institutions commonly require a more extensive banking relationship and days or even weeks of wait times to access their features and services, which can potentially be more onerous in order to obtain premium features (e.g., access to higher interest rates requires direct deposit or higher minimum daily balances). Even new challenger banks often take multiple days or even weeks before allowing members to access certain premium features, according to the same research. In contrast, Dave's Members are able to utilize all of Dave’s products individually and instantly, whether or not their primary banking relationship is with us. As an example, our ExtraCash product allows Members to access up to $500 to cover an overdraft at their existing bank or everyday expenses such as rent, gas or groceries. We are able to do this by

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leveraging our proprietary machine learning engine that analyzes a Member’s prior transaction history at their existing bank. This flexible approach to Member choice and speed to value has been a key driver of our highly efficient customer acquisition costs, Member engagement and growth as well as best-in-class brand favorability. Dave leads its peers in Apple’s app-store ratings, with a 4.8 average rating from over 625,000 reviews.


We have only begun to address the many inequities in financial services, but our progress to date demonstrates the demand for Dave to rewire the financial system for the everyday person. Since inception and through the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, over 10 million Members have registered on the Dave app and over eight million of them have used at least one of our current products and we believe that we have a substantial opportunity to continue growing our Member base going forward. We strongly believe that the value proposition of our platform approach will continue to accelerate as a result of our data-driven perspective of our Members, allowing us to introduce products and services that address their changing life circumstances.

Recent Developments

On January 4, 2023, the Board of Directors of the Company approved an amendment to the Company’s certificate of incorporation to complete a 1-for-32 reverse stock split effective January 5, 2023. The primary goal of the reverse stock split is to bring the Company’s stock price above the share bid price requirement for continued listing on Nasdaq. Unless otherwise indicated, the effects of the reverse stock split have been reflected in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the consolidated financial statements and the footnotes in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our Strategy

Americans have been underserved by existing financial products for decades. We take a unique approach to serving our large addressable market with the following strategy:

Offering a suite of products that help solve critical Member pain points, driving low acquisition costs.
Creating frictionless access to a suite of financial products.
Leveraging data and proprietary artificial intelligence-based underwriting technology to offer ExtraCash at affordable prices and with leading expediency.
Focusing on community building with our Member base.
Generating a “flywheel” by cross-selling existing Members to new, complementary products at no additional Member acquisition costs, resulting in lower consumer pricing.

Offering products to solve critical Member pain points: One in five Americans are either unbanked (no checking account) or underbanked (access to a checking account, but pays significant fees and/or has limited access to credit). Household financial insecurity is even more pervasive. Today, more than 176 million Americans are either financially vulnerable or financially coping, with over 30% unable to afford a one-time $400 emergency expense, according to the Federal Reserve's report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households, and 63% are living paycheck-to-paycheck, according to results from the December 2022 Paycheck to Paycheck Report published by PYMNTS.

Retail banks—large-scale depository institutions, regional banks, credit unions and other traditional financial institutions—are largely set up to serve Americans who are financially stable. For these Americans, existing financial services offerings largely address their needs; they offer mortgages, savings accounts, credit cards, wealth management and more. In contrast, low-income or low-balance consumers are discouraged or disqualified from traditional financial services offerings as a result of their onerous overdraft fees, minimum account balance fees, minimum credit score requirements and other stringent requirements. Historically, Members have incurred an average of $300-400 per year in fees from their legacy banks.

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At Dave, we have built an all-in-one mobile platform that offers the following financial products to directly address the financial instability that these Americans face:

ExtraCash: Many Americans are often unable to maintain a positive balance between paychecks, driving a reliance on overdraft products, payday loans, auto title loans and other forms of expensive credit to put food on the table, gas in their car or pay for unexpected emergencies. For example, traditional banks charge up to $34 for access to as little as $5 of overdraft, whereas many others in the financial services sector do not allow for overdraft at all. Dave invented a short-term liquidity alternative called ExtraCash, which allows Members to receive a cash advance of up to $500 with an option to advance funds to their bank account via the automated clearing house (ACH) network (which typically takes two to five business days) and avoid fees altogether. Members also have the option to advance funds to their bank account via the debit card network (which typically takes minutes or hours) for an express service fee.

Dave Banking: Dave offers a full-service digital checking account through our partnership with Evolve Bank and Trust (“Evolve”), an Arkansas state-chartered bank owned by Evolve Bancorp Inc. Dave Banking accounts do not have overdraft or minimum balance fees, allow for early paycheck payment, offer a Dave debit card to facilitate everyday spending including cashback reward offers, and provide Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurance on checking account balances up to $250,000. Moreover, Dave Banking Members receive features to support their financial health such as Goals savings accounts and opt-in round-up savings on debit transactions in addition to receiving lower ExtraCash instant transfer fees.

Budget: As spending and earning dynamics have become more complex over time, Dave offers a personal financial management tool to support Members with budgeting, wherever someone banks. With Budget, Dave helps Members to manage their income and expenses between paychecks and avoid liquidity jams that may cause them to overdraft. Dave tracks Members’ income and expenses, and we let them know about estimated upcoming bills and other expenses. Budget will monitor their linked bank account held at a depository institution, including a Dave Banking account, and will let them know when they're in danger of having insufficient funds in their account. This helps Members avoid overdrafts, returned transactions and bank fees.

Side Hustle and Surveys: Dave seeks to help Members improve their financial health by offering them opportunities to generate supplemental income through two channels: Side Hustle and Surveys. Side Hustle Members can quickly submit applications to leading employers, including DoorDash, Airbnb, Lyft, Rover and more that can lead to increased income with flexible employment. Our Surveys product allows for additional earning opportunities, allowing Members to take paid surveys anytime within the Dave mobile application. These channels drive engagement within the Dave ecosystem and deepen our relationship to our Members’ financial wellbeing.

Creating frictionless access to high-impact products: In order to access the financial tools many retail banks offer, consumers are often first required to establish a checking account with that bank. Banks may also require a direct deposit relationship to discourage switching banks. Most financial technology companies in the consumer banking space have largely retained this model, requiring a primary banking relationship in order to access their tools around financial health.

At Dave, we believe this approach is exclusionary and discourages participation in the banking system for tens of millions of Americans who need it most. As part of our philosophy of solving critical financial pain points for consumers, we deliberately offer each of our products on a standalone basis, meeting Members where they are and allowing them to engage with Dave on their own terms. We believe that high-impact products that are easy to access and easy to use will engender Member loyalty and engagement across multiple products and expand the lifetime value of these Member relationships.

Leveraging data to offer high impact products quickly and at advantageous pricing: We offer our high impact ExtraCash and Budget products to Members within a matter of minutes of installing the Dave mobile application. When a Member connects their existing bank account to Dave, we analyze several months of historical spending and income data using our proprietary machine-learning and income-detection algorithms. To date, we have analyzed tens of billions Member transactions. This allows us to offer immediate budgeting insights such as an upcoming utility bill and rapidly approve Members for up to $500 of ExtraCash which can be accessed within hours. While

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early wage access and cash advance products have become increasingly common across banking innovators, these products typically depend on multiple direct deposits into a bank account—often requiring multiple weeks and pay cycles. At Dave, a Member can receive much-needed cash in a matter of minutes and, while Members receive a new bank account in conjunction with signing up for Dave, it is an additional benefit to Members and not a requirement to obtain ExtraCash.

This wealth of data, combined with our machine-learning capabilities and underwriting excellence, is competitive advantages that will increase with Member scale. We expect to continue to develop these technologies and use them for product expansion in the future.

Focusing on community building with our Members: We take our mission to build products that level the financial playing field seriously. That is why we have developed financial products that address the needs of more than 160 million Americans.

To date, we have helped our Members avoid nearly $2 billion in overdraft fees from their legacy bank relationships through our ExtraCash product. Through our charity program, we have delivered 80 million meals and pledged over $8 million to Feeding America and other causes. Dave has been named a Best Place to Work by Built In for three consecutive years, most recently being recognized as one of the best remote workplaces in the U.S.

Generating a virtual “flywheel”: Our aim is to create the most trusted, integrated financial services platform that will generate a cycle whereby positive Member experiences will lead to more products adopted per Member and enhanced profitability for each additional product at no additional acquisition cost. We refer to this cycle as our “Dave Flywheel.” Over ten million Americans have downloaded and registered accounts on the Dave app, and more than six million Americans have connected their existing bank accounts to Dave.

Our Member acquisition efficiency is a testament to Dave’s product-market fit and trusted brand. Our unique ability to offer an immediate short-term solution to near-term financial instability, without direct deposit or bank account relationship length requirements, has proven highly compelling to a broad range of Members. Further, our digitally-native interface and the community impact of our products creates a compelling Member experience that paves the way to offer additional products within our ecosystem.

Our Product Platform

Our intuitive and Member-friendly app provides a fast, seamless experience across all of our products. We are committed to delivering a delightful Member experience; we continuously listen to our Members’ feedback and implement improvements on a rapid release cycle. As of December 31, 2022, we had received nearly 625,000 ratings on the Apple app store, with a 4.8 rating.

Dave’s current product platform includes:

“ExtraCash” Advance Product

ExtraCash is our 0% APR cash advance product that gives Members access to much-needed liquidity to avoid overdraft fees or bridge themselves to their next paycheck. No credit check is required and eligibility for ExtraCash is based on the verification of the Member’s checking account and the Member’s identity. Beginning in the summer of 2022, all new Members receive a Dave Banking account to which they can receive their ExtraCash advance; alternatively, Members can disburse their advance to a checking account with another financial institution. Once a Member connects his or her bank account to the Dave app, data regarding the Member’s account is gathered and analyzed. The amount of the advance available to a Member is a function of a proprietary machine-learning algorithm that analyzes historical spending, savings and earnings patterns based on data gathered from the Member’s bank account, among other data points. This process is fully automated unless there are any issues flagged via our Member identification processes. Timing of the repayment of the ExtraCash advance is determined when the ExtraCash advance is made and is based on the estimated date that the Member will receive his or her next paycheck, which typically ranges from seven to 10 days from when they apply for an ExtraCash advance. A Member is limited to one ExtraCash advance per pay period and may only have one ExtraCash advance outstanding

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at any given time. The maximum term for an ExtraCash advance is 31 days. Dave develops and manages the entire risk management and decisioning process associated with issuing and servicing ExtraCash advances. Since the payback date is an estimate of the Member’s next paycheck date, we primarily monitor and manage delinquency and loss performance based on repayment experience following the estimated repayment date. Specifically, we assess dollars repaid relative to dollars owed over this period. The table below summarizes delinquency repayment performance over the historical period where the 28-day delinquency rate for a particular month represents the total delinquent principal disbursed in that calendar month (inclusive of the delinquent pledged instant transfer fees and tips) divided by the total receivables created in that particular calendar month.

 

Year

Average 28-Day Delinquency Rate

2020

4.34%

2021

3.93%

2022

3.65%

There are no fees associated with the delivery of ExtraCash funds to a checking account (typically delivered within two to five business days) via ACH. Should a Member wish to receive their funds on an expedited basis (guaranteed within eight hours, though often significantly faster), there is an optional instant transfer fee. The instant transfer fee ranges from $1.99 to $12.99, depending on the size of the advance taken and whether the ExtraCash advance is disbursed to an external account or the Members’s Dave Banking account. Members are offered lower instant transfer fees if they elect to disburse ExtraCash funds internally to their Dave Banking account. Use of the expedited transfer feature is entirely optional. Further, we give Members the option to leave a tip based on what they think is fair when they use ExtraCash if they feel we have provided value to them.

On the repayment date, we trigger an automated withdrawal from the Member’s account for the ExtraCash advance amount plus the optional instant transfer fee and optional tip if a Member opted for those services. We take a consumer-friendly approach to the withdrawal process by attempting to check Member balances before initiating all withdrawals. In the event there are insufficient funds to cover the repayment amount, we do not attempt the withdrawal and will wait until the Member has a sufficient balance before initiating the transaction in order to minimize the possibility of triggering an overdraft for our Members. Consistent with our reserve methodology, we deem a Member advance that has been outstanding for more than 120 days to be uncollectible and is therefore written off.

Demand Deposit Account: “Dave Banking”

Dave Banking is our FDIC-insured digital demand deposit account with premium features, cashback rewards, and no account minimums or corresponding fees. Our Dave Banking demand deposit accounts are currently issued by Evolve.

Members can open a Dave Banking account in minutes through the Dave mobile application, add funds to their account and begin spending using a Dave Banking virtual debit card. Dave Banking accounts also include a physical Dave Debit MasterCard that can be used for everyday purchases and spending transactions as well as at any of the nearly 40,000 MoneyPass ATM network locations to make no-fee withdrawals at these in-network ATMs.

Dave Banking accounts can be funded with an ExtraCash advance, direct deposit, an external debit card, an external bank account, or mobile check capture. There are no fees for a Dave Banking account, making it accessible for people of all financial situations.

Our Dave Banking account includes some of the best features and rewards in banking, including:

Zero account minimums;
40,000 MoneyPass ATM network locations to make no-fee withdrawals;
Paychecks delivered up to two days earlier than the scheduled payment date with direct deposit into the Dave Banking account, a feature accessible with no additional mandatory fees;

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Access to mobile wallets such as Apple Pay and Google Pay;
Round-up feature allowing Members to round-up their debit card transaction into a Goals account which helps Members accumulate savings; and
Up to $500 in ExtraCash capacity for short-term liquidity.

Dave Banking offers robust security controls such as multi-factor authentication, contactless payment, instant card lock and protection against unauthorized purchases if cards are lost or stolen.

Our Dave Banking demand deposit accounts are currently issued by Evolve. Evolve is also the issuer of all Dave Banking debit cards and sponsors access to debit networks for payment transactions, funding transactions and associated settlement of funds under a sponsorship agreement with Dave. Evolve also provides sponsorship and support for ACH and associated funds settlement. Under the agreement between Dave and Evolve related to Dave Banking, Evolve receives all of the program revenue and transaction fees, and passes them on to Dave, minus any obligations owed to Evolve. Dave pays all payment network fees and other program-specific expenses associated with Dave Banking. These payment network fees are set directly by the various payment networks and based on the transactions processed on their respective network. See “Our Business Model” below for additional information.

Personal Financial Management Tool: “Budget”

We believe that understanding and visibility are core to a Member’s financial health. That’s why we developed our product offering called Budget, a personal financial management tool that helps Members understand their spending and savings habits and learn better financial management.

This automated financial management tool leverages historical bank account data to help Members understand both recurring and commonly occurring charges, helping Members understand potential upcoming pain points. Budget notifies Members when there is a chance of an overdraft, and allows Members to qualify for Dave’s ExtraCash product for up to $500 of additional liquidity. We charge a $1 monthly subscription for access to the Budget product.

Job Application Portal: “Side Hustle”

Side Hustle is our streamlined job application portal for Dave Members to find supplemental or temporary work. We focus on “gig economy,” part-time, seasonal, remote and other flexible types of employment opportunities. Members can apply to dozens of jobs in-app using saved information and credentials. A side hustle can be an important part of a Member’s long-term financial health, as it allows Members to quickly address unexpected expenses or cash needs with incremental income.

Supplemental Income Generation: “Surveys”

Our recently launched Surveys product allows for additional earning opportunities, allowing Members to take paid surveys anytime within the Dave mobile application. This functionality drives engagement within the Dave ecosystem and deepen our relationship to our Members’ financial wellbeing.

Our Business Model

We offer a range of financial products and services through a single platform delivered via a mobile application.

Our revenue is primarily broken into the following categories:

Service Based Revenue: in 2022, 92% of revenue, approximately $188.9 million in revenue
ExtraCash (optional instant transfer convenience fees and optional tips)
Budget (subscription fee)
Other (Side Hustle lead)

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Transaction Based Revenue: in 2022, 8% of revenue, approximately $16.0 million in revenue
Dave Banking (interchange fees, network incentives, deposit referral fees and out-of-network ATM fees)

We originate ExtraCash advances directly, and we service all the advances that we originate.

ExtraCash advances have historically been funded through balance sheet cash. Beginning in January 2021, subsequent to the formation of Dave OD Funding I, LLC (“Dave OD Funding”), a subsidiary of Dave which is consolidated in Dave’s financial statements, ExtraCash advances have been funded through a combination of balance sheet cash and funding available under Dave OD Funding’s debt facility with Victory Park Capital, an affiliate of VPCC. ExtraCash advances are originated at Dave and transferred to Dave OD Funding for servicing. Cash is transferred back from Dave OD Funding to Dave through the acquisition of newly originated advance receivables and by distributions following the repayment of advances by Members. Proceeds of borrowings under the debt facility are used by Dave OD Funding to purchase advance receivables. The Company, through Dave OD Funding, continues to service all advances that it originates.

In addition, we depend on certain key third-party partners to provide certain of our products and services. Our Dave Banking demand deposit accounts and associated debit cards are currently issued by Evolve. We are party to a Bank Services Agreement with Evolve, with a term which is set to automatically renew on July 13, 2023 and which will automatically renew for successive one-year periods unless either party provides written notice of non-renewal, which may be provided without cause to the other party at least 180 days prior to the end of any such term. In addition, upon the occurrence of certain early termination events, either we or Evolve may terminate the agreement immediately upon written notice to the other party. The Bank Services Agreement does not prohibit Evolve from working with our competitors or from offering competing services, nor does it prevent us from working with other banks to provide similar services. Our partnership with Evolve allows us to provide deposit accounts and debit cards while complying with various federal, state, and other laws. Evolve also sponsors access to debit networks and ACH for payment transactions, funding transactions and associated settlement of funds.

In connection with our arrangements with Evolve, we have also entered into a multi-year service agreement with Galileo Financial Technologies, LLC (f/k/a Galileo Financial Technologies, Inc.) (“Galileo”), a payment processing platform, in which Galileo has agreed to process all transactions for our Dave Banking accounts and debit cards, and to handle corresponding payments and adjustments. Galileo also maintains cardholder information, implements certain fraud control processes and procedures, and provides related services in connection with the Dave Banking accounts and debit cards. We pay the greater of actual fees or the minimum monthly fee for these services. In January 2023, we executed an amended agreement with Galileo that should significantly reduce the fees that we pay to Galileo for these services. In conjunction with the amended agreement, the term of the agreement was amended such that the agreement expires on the fifth anniversary of the effective date of the amended agreement. Following the amended term of the agreement, the agreement renews for successive one-year periods unless either party provides written notice of non-renewal, which may be provided without cause, to the other party at least four months prior to the end of any such renewal term. The occurrence of certain events would provide each party with an early termination right under the agreement.

Our Growth Strategy

We believe we are in the early stages of realizing the full value of our existing platform. We seek to capitalize on the structural advantages inherent in being a digitally native, customer-centric, and built-to-scale platform as we continue capturing share of the growing market opportunity. Our multi-pronged growth strategy is designed to continue building upon the momentum we have generated to date to create even greater value for consumers:

Continue penetrating our large addressable market;
Accelerate cross-sell into Dave Banking;
Deliver new products and features to cross-sell to Members; and
Evaluate additional strategic acquisitions.

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Continue penetrating our large addressable market: More than 160 million Americans are in need of more financial stability. Approximately one in five Americans are “unbanked” or “underbanked”—without access to a checking account, or with access to a checking account but burdened excessively with interest and fees. Approximately 10% of households overdraft their account over 10 times per year, and approximately half of all banked financially vulnerable households overdrafted at least once per year. Framed differently, more than 30% of Americans are unable to afford a one-time $400 emergency and more than 63% of U.S. consumers are living paycheck-to-paycheck. Therefore, while we have achieved significant user scale, there remains significant runway for growth in our core product markets.

Accelerate cross-sell into Dave Banking: We are focused on continuing to expand the relationships we have with our Members into Dave Banking customers who engage in recurring funding and spending on our platform. As of the summer of 2022, all new Members receive a Dave Banking account to which they can receive an ExtraCash advance and with which they can satisfy their major funding and spending needs. Our goal is to expand the synergies between our ExtraCash product and the Dave Banking solution, build long-term, high-value direct deposit relationships with our Members and, ultimately, become the primary banking service for our Members.

Deliver and market new products and features: Our product development teams, inclusive of Product Management, Engineering, Design and Data Science, are constantly innovating. We are continually optimizing our current products, while also developing new features and solutions. We build products for our Members that we believe not only impact their daily financial lives, but are also intuitive and easy to use. At the same time, we design our products to drive value for our business and be technically scalable.

Leveraging both quantitative and qualitative Member data, we seek to solve Member financial challenges and drive greater engagement. We begin by listening to our Members and then flowing through our phases of product development—research and development, prototyping and design, Member validation and Member testing, development and launch—and then ongoing learning and iterating.

Evaluate Additional Strategic Acquisitions: We believe acquisitions will be an important tool to accelerate realization of our strategic roadmap going forward. We plan to be intentional in evaluating opportunities to serve larger populations with our leading products, to develop new avenues for engagement with and retention of our current Members and to enter new and synergistic product categories.

Seasonality

Our service based revenue is typically weakest in the first quarter when the Company tends to reduce its marketing expense in order to optimize returns on our advertising spend. The efficiency of the Company's marketing expense, based on relative levels of customer acquisition costs, is typically softest in the first quarter given how tax refunds help to support the liquidity needs of the Company's Members. Beyond the first quarter, service based revenue is typically strongest in the second and third quarter when the Company tends to accelerate marketing expense in a disciplined manner given how it can generally achieve attractive returns on that investment at greater scale. From a delinquency performance perspective, the first quarter is typically the strongest quarter for ExtraCash given the repayment support which tax refunds provide our Members. Transaction based revenue is typically strongest in the first quarter as the liquidity support which tax refunds provide causes higher levels of Dave Banking debit card spending and, hence, interchange revenue.

Marketing

Member acquisition relies primarily on paid and organic online advertising and social media. Dave also relies on television (streaming and linear), paid search, organic web traffic and e-mail marketing. Referrals and spend incentives drive incremental acquisition and engagement. Marketing creative content and online ads are produced and edited by a lean, experienced, in-house team, well-versed in tailoring messages for our target segments. Product marketing efforts are aimed at increasing Member engagement, through-funnel conversion and retention at a very low cost.

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Dave's management team believes that its customer acquisition cost is one of the lowest in the industry which we attribute to both the sophistication of our marketing strategy and channel optimization as well as ExtraCash’s ability to address what our proprietary research reveals as the primary pain point for our Member base: short term liquidity. We manage and monitor the efficiency of our marketing investment, in part, by comparing it to the number of customers acquired as well as the amount of gross and net revenue which these customers generate for the Company within a given period. The following table outlines Dave’s customer acquisition cost which is defined as total marketing expense in a given period divided by the number of new Members who join the Dave platform in a given period by connecting an existing bank account to the Dave platform or by opening a Dave Banking account:

 

Year

Customer Acquisition Cost (per customer)

2020

$17

2021

$25

2022

$24

Customer Acquisition Cost is defined as all advertising and marketing operating expenses in a given period divided by the number of new members who join the Dave platform in a given period by connecting an existing bank account to the Dave service or by opening a new Dave Banking account.

Competitive Landscape

Consumer financial services is a large, fragmented, and competitive market, and we compete in varying degrees with a range of existing providers of consumer-focused banking, lending, commerce and other financial products. Our competitors are generally large, well-capitalized financial services companies. Some of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, particularly with respect to financial products similar to what we offer, significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources, and a larger Member base. These competitors include:

Banking Competitors: Traditional banks and credit unions (e.g., Bank of America, Chase, Wells Fargo), new entrants obtaining banking licenses (e.g., Varo Money), and other non-bank digital providers that white-label regulated products, offering banking-related services (e.g., Chime).
Lending and Earned Income Advance Competitors: Traditional banks and credit unions, specialty finance and other non-bank providers, offering consumer lending-related or advance products (e.g., Upstart, MoneyLion).
Innovators in Consumer Finance: Consumer-oriented commerce enablement platforms (e.g., Affirm, Afterpay), finance-oriented social networks (e.g., CashApp, Venmo), and lending platforms (e.g., OpenLending, LendingClub).

We believe other market participants do not adequately meet the needs of an estimated 160 to 180 million Americans who make up our target market. We believe our ease of access, speed-to-value, data-driven approach and powerful flywheel will allow us to continue to efficiently scale and generate strong returns.

Customer Service

Our mission is to deliver a “center of excellence” utilizing the voice of our Members to ensure they have successful interactions with our platform. We are customer-centric and devoted to providing transformational experiences. We offer omni channel support guided by Member data and artificial intelligence to augment all of our responses via chatbot, chatting with an agent, contacting us by phone, emailing with us or reaching out via social media. We use seamless tools to give us a 360-degree view of our Members’ journeys with the goal of offering the right resolutions to the right problems. Our 24/7 knowledge center provides best practices to empower Members to employ our tools and services effectively. We also review feedback from Members via Member satisfaction surveys, net promoter score tracking and app ratings to guide process updates and optimize our products. Our approach enables us to resolve a large variety of inquiries with ease, customization and efficiency.

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Management

Leadership talent and vision are core priorities at Dave. We have carefully built our team to include experts who will help develop our unique and innovative solutions. Our founding team includes serial entrepreneurs, experienced designers and technology experts. Sourcing from some of the largest and most successful companies in consumer and financial technology, we have hired leaders in People, Product and Marketing. Our Legal and Regulatory functions are led by veterans from high-growth financial services firms. We will continue to focus on building our leadership team as we grow and diversify our business.

Employees and Culture

Every day, our small but mighty team works together to level the financial playing field. It is this mission and the opportunity to impact the lives of tens of millions of current and future Members that gets us out of bed each day. But, being mission driven alone is not enough to attract great talent. We have made significant strides towards setting the foundation to becoming a great place to work.

Over the past year, we have invested in embedding the OKR (Objectives and Key Results) framework utilized by many high performing technology organizations into our ways of working here at Dave. We have also implemented Quarterly Business Reviews, which are an opportunity for the most senior leaders of the company to review KPI performance from the previous quarter and ensure alignment on our plans for the upcoming quarter. These two changes to the way we operate have been transformational for Dave, leading to increased accountability, more effective cross-functional collaboration, and ultimately ensuring every team member has a clear understanding of Dave’s goals and what they can do to contribute.

We continue our investment in great people leadership as we know that great people leaders have a multiplying effect on what a business is able to achieve. This insight has led us to invest very early in defining what it means to be a great leader at Dave. Our leaders aspire to create purpose, foster growth, lead through change, communicate with clarity and consistency and prioritize Dave-wide success. We continue to embed this definition of leadership into all aspects of the employee experience at Dave to ensure that over time, we are building the cadre of high performing leaders that inspire their teams to deliver our mission and business results.

Over the last year, we have continued to see the benefits from our strategic decision to operate as a Virtual First company. We now have team members in over 30 states and have greatly changed the profile of talent at Dave by removing geographic limitations. And, in this model, by removing daily commutes and in-office distractions, we have found that we are developing and launching more products and at a faster rate than historical experience. Finally, we know there is value in in-person collaboration and, with that in mind, we encourage team offsites and have implemented a co-working stipend to help give team members optionality in where they work.

Given our mission, we have invested in supporting the financial wellness of our own team by providing market competitive compensation and benefits programs, a 401k match and a benefits offering that allows all Dave employees access to a dedicated personal financial advisor to meet with as frequently as they choose.

Finally, as a fintech company working to reinvent so many aspects of our legacy financial system, we are no strangers to the unknown. We acknowledge that building a company and culture that employees can be proud of and recommend to their closest friends is not always linear. As such, we have mechanisms in place, including semi-annual engagement pulse surveys, to track how we are doing so that we can listen, learn and course correct.

As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 320 full time employees across all locations. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement.

Regulatory Environment

We operate in a complex regulatory environment consisting of U.S. federal and state laws that is rapidly evolving. These laws cover most aspects of our business and include laws, regulations, rules and guidance relating to, among other things, consumer finance and protection, privacy and data protection, banking, and payments. For example, with respect to our ExtraCash advance product, certain state laws may, if applicable, regulate the charges or fees we

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can assess and how we may obtain repayment from our Members. In addition, other federal and state laws, public policy, and general principles of equity, such as laws prohibiting unfair and deceptive acts or practices, may apply to our activities in banking, ExtraCash advances, payments, and other areas. These laws and regulations impact our business both directly and indirectly, including by way of our partnership with Evolve, which provides deposit accounts and debit cards to our Members. Ensuring ongoing compliance with these laws and regulations imposes significant burdens on our business operations. See “Risk Factors—We operate in an uncertain regulatory environment and may from time to time be subject to governmental investigations or other inquiries by state, federal and local governmental authorities” and —Our business is subject to extensive regulation and oversight in a variety of areas, including registration and licensing requirements under federal, state and local laws and regulations.

In addition, we may become subject to additional legal or regulatory requirements we are not subject to today if laws or regulations change in the jurisdictions in which we operate, or if we were to release new products or services. In addition, the regulatory framework for our products and services is evolving and uncertain and specifically the framework that applies to our ExtraCash advance business, as federal and state governments and regulators consider the application of existing laws and potential adoption of new laws. The potential for new laws and regulations, as well as ongoing uncertainty regarding the application of existing laws and regulations to our current products and services, may negatively affect our business. This could include the need to modify the way in which we generate revenue from certain business lines, obtain new licenses, or comply with additional laws and regulations in order to conduct our business.

State licensing requirements and regulation

We believe that none of our current business lines require us to obtain any state licenses. However, the application of state licensing requirements (including those applicable to consumer lenders) to our business model is not always clear and state regulators may request or require that we obtain licenses or otherwise comply with additional requirements in the future, which may result in changes to our business practices. In addition, if we are found to have engaged in activities subject to state licensure for which we lack the requisite license, or in activities that are otherwise deemed to be in violation of state lending laws, the relevant state authority may impose fines, impose restrictions on our operations in the relevant state, or seek other remedies for activities conducted in the state.

U.S. federal consumer protection requirements

Here we summarize several of the material federal consumer protection and other laws applicable to our business. Many states have laws and regulations that are similar to the federal laws described, but the degree and nature of such laws and regulations vary from state to state. We must comply with various federal consumer protection regimes, both pursuant to the financial products and services we provide directly and as a service provider to Evolve.

We are subject to regulation by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”), which oversees compliance with and enforces federal consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB directly and significantly influences the regulation of consumer financial products and services, including the products and services we provide. The CFPB has substantial power to regulate such products and services and the banks and non-bank entities that provide them, as well as their respective third-party service providers. This power includes rule making authority in enumerated areas of federal law such as truth in lending, credit discrimination, electronic fund transfers and truth in savings. Under Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFPB also has the authority to pursue enforcement actions against companies that offer or provide consumer financial products or services that engage in unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices, commonly referred to as “UDAAPs.” The CFPB may also seek a range of other remedies, including restitution, refunds of money, disgorgement of profits or compensation for unjust enrichment, civil money penalties, rescission of contracts, public notification of the violation, and restrictions on the target’s conduct, activities and functions. Moreover, where a company has violated Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act or CFPB regulations under Title X, the Dodd-Frank Act empowers state attorneys general and state regulators to bring civil actions to enforce such laws and regulations.

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Our business activities, either directly or indirectly through our partnership with Evolve, are also subject to applicable requirements under other federal statutes and regulations, including but not limited to:

Federal Trade Commission Act. The Federal Trade Commission Act prohibits unfair and deceptive acts and practices in business or commerce and grants the FTC and bank regulators enforcement authority to prevent and redress violations of this prohibition. Whether a particular act or practice violates these laws or the prohibition against UDAAPs enforced by the CFPB frequently involves a highly subjective and/or fact-specific judgment.
Truth in Savings Act. The federal Truth in Savings Act (“TISA”) and Regulation DD which implements it require that consumers be provided various disclosures concerning terms and conditions of deposit accounts. They also impose disclosure requirements and restrictions on advertising regarding deposit accounts. TISA and Regulation DD apply to the demand deposit accounts opened by our Members at Evolve.
Electronic Fund Transfer Act and NACHA Rules. The federal Electronic Fund Transfer Act (“EFTA”) and Regulation E which implements it provide guidelines and restrictions on the provision of electronic fund transfer services to consumers, and on making an electronic transfer of funds from consumers’ bank accounts. EFTA also limits consumers’ liability for unauthorized electronic fund transfers and requires banks and other financial services companies to comply with certain transaction error resolution procedures. Electronic fund transfers within the scope of EFTA include ACH transfers and debit card transfers. In addition, transfers performed by ACH are subject to specific authorization, timing and notification rules and guidelines administered by the National Automated Clearinghouse Association (“NACHA”). NACHA operating rules further imposes maximum tolerances on the volume of ACH transfers that may be returned as unauthorized or for other reasons. Exceeding those tolerances may result in limitations being imposed on our ability to initiate ACH transactions. Many transfers of funds in connection with the provision and repayment of our ExtraCash advances are performed by electronic fund transfers, including ACH transfers. We also facilitate the electronic transfer of funds requested by our Members between their deposit accounts with Evolve and their accounts at other financial institutions.
Payday, Vehicle Title, and Certain High-Cost Installment Loans Final Rule. In 2017, the CFPB issued a final rule intended to provide various consumer protections with respect to certain short-term credit products. The rule was later stayed by a federal district court order in an industry challenge to the rule, and the effective date of many provisions of the rule was separately delayed by the CFPB in June 2019. A section pertaining to underwriting was subsequently rescinded in July 2020. The CFPB may engage in rule making in the future to amend the regulation and implement new underwriting and other requirements and restrictions that could negatively impact our business and require us to change our practices should they be deemed to apply to us. However, certain nonrecourse advance products are currently excluded from coverage by the rule provided certain consumer contract requirements are met and the advance provider does not engage in certain activities with respect to such products.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLBA”) imposes limitations on financial institutions’ disclosure of nonpublic personal information about a consumer to nonaffiliated third parties. In certain circumstances, GLBA requires financial institutions to limit the use and further disclosure of nonpublic personal information by nonaffiliated third parties to whom they disclose such information, and requires financial institutions to disclose certain privacy policies and practices with respect to information sharing with affiliated and nonaffiliated entities, as well as to safeguard personal Member information.

Given our novel business model and products, and the subjective nature of certain laws and regulations such as the prohibition against UDAAPs, we have been and may in the future become subject to regulatory scrutiny or legal challenge with respect to our compliance with these and other regulatory requirements. Additional or different requirements may also apply to our business in the future as the regulatory framework in which we operate is evolving and uncertain. While we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, we may not have been, and may not always be, in compliance with these and other laws.

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No assurance is given that our compliance policies and procedures have been or will be effective or adequate as laws change or are applied to us in a new manner.

Regulation of our bank partnership model

Pursuant to our partnership with Evolve, we offer our Members FDIC-insured, non-interest-bearing deposit accounts and debit cards that Members can use to access their account balances. These deposit accounts and debit cards are provided by Evolve. Under the terms of our agreement with Evolve, as well as the agreements between our Members and Evolve, each Member that chooses to open a deposit account has a deposit account at Evolve and a debit card issued by Evolve. With respect to these deposit accounts and debit cards, we act as the program manager and service provider to Evolve to provide customer support and technology features to Members using their Evolve accounts through our platform.

Evolve is subject to regulation and supervision by the FDIC. Many laws and regulations that apply directly to Evolve indirectly impact us (and our products) as Evolve’s service provider. As such, our partnership with Evolve is subject to the supervision and enforcement authority of the Federal Reserve, Evolve’s primary banking regulator.

Other regulatory requirements

In addition to the requirements described above, we are subject to and work to comply with other state and federal laws and regulations applicable to consumer financial products and services. These laws and regulations may be enforced by various state banking and consumer protection agencies, state attorneys general, the CFPB, and private litigants, among others.

Bank Secrecy Act and Anti-Money Laundering. Given our involvement in payments, banking transactions, and our arrangements with Evolve, we are subject to compliance obligations related to U.S. anti-money laundering (“AML”) laws and regulations. We have developed and currently operate an AML program designed to prevent our products from being used to facilitate money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes. Our program is also designed to prevent our products from being used to facilitate business in certain countries or territories, or with certain individuals or entities, including those on designated lists promulgated by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls and other U.S. and non-U.S. sanctions authorities. Our AML and sanctions compliance programs include policies, procedures, reporting protocols, and internal controls. Our programs are designed to address these legal and regulatory requirements and to assist in managing risks associated with money laundering and terrorist financing.

Privacy and Information Security Laws. We collect, store, use, disclose, and otherwise process a wide variety of information and data, including personally identifiable information (“PII”) that we acquire in connection with our Members’ use of our products and services, for various purposes in our business, including to help ensure the integrity of our services and to provide features and functionality to our Members. This aspect of our business is subject to numerous privacy, cybersecurity, and other laws and regulations in the United States, including the federal GLBA and various state laws such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”). Accordingly, we publish our privacy policies and terms of service, which describe our practices concerning the collection, storage, use, disclosure, transmission, processing, and protection of information.

The legal and regulatory framework for privacy and security issues is rapidly evolving, and, although we endeavor to comply with these laws and regulations and our own policies and documentation, we may fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so. Any actual or perceived failure to comply with legal and regulatory requirements applicable to us, including those relating to privacy or security, or any failure to protect the information that we collect from our Members from cyberattacks, or any similar actual or perceived failure by our third-party service providers and partners, may result in private litigation, regulatory or governmental investigations, administrative enforcement actions, sanctions, civil and criminal liability, and constraints on our ability to continue to operate, among other things. Please see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Dave’s Business and Industry—

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Stringent and changing laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection could result in claims, harm our results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects, or otherwise harm our business.

Laws Governing Marketing and Member Communications. In addition, there are federal and state laws and regulations on marketing activities conducted over the internet, through email, or by mail or telephone, including the federal Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”), the federal Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (“CAN-SPAM Act”), FTC regulations and guidelines that implement, among other things, the FTC’s Do-Not-Call Registry and other requirements in connection with telemarketing activities, and state telemarketing laws. Our marketing activities may subject us to some or all of these laws and regulations.

New Laws and Regulations. Various federal and state regulatory agencies in the United States continue to examine a wide variety of issues that are applicable to us and may impact our business. These issues include consumer protection, cybersecurity, privacy, electronic transfers, state licensing, and the regulation of cash advance services. As we continue to develop and expand, we monitor for additional rules and regulations that may impact our business.

 

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property and proprietary rights are important to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements, and other contractual protections, to establish and protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including our proprietary technology, software, know-how, and brand. In the future we will be looking closely at the possibility of filing design and utility patents to further enhance the measures of intellectual property protection for the company. However, these laws, agreements, and procedures provide only limited protection. As of December 31, 2022, we own five registered trademarks in the United States and have ten pending trademark applications in various stages of review by the PTO. Although we take steps to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will be sufficient or effective to prevent the unauthorized access, use, copying, or the reverse engineering of our technology and other proprietary information, including by third parties who may use our technology or other proprietary information to develop services that compete with ours. Moreover, others may independently develop technologies or services that are competitive with ours or that infringe on, misappropriate, or otherwise violate our intellectual property and proprietary rights. Policing the unauthorized use of our intellectual property and proprietary rights can be difficult. The enforcement of our intellectual property and proprietary rights also depends on any legal actions we may bring against any such parties being successful, but these actions are costly, time-consuming, and may not be successful, even when our rights have been infringed, misappropriated, or otherwise violated. In addition, aspects of our platform and services include software covered by open source licenses. The terms of various open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our services.

Although we rely on intellectual property and proprietary rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets, as well as contractual protections, in our business, we also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our intellectual property and proprietary rights through appropriate technological restrictions, such as physical and electronic security measures. We believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel and frequent enhancements to our network are also essential to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.

See the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property and proprietary rights.

Available Information

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Our SEC filings are also available free of charge on the Investor Relations portion of our website at dave.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our website and the information contained on or through that site are not incorporated into this report. All website addresses in this report are intended to be inactive textual references only.

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Information About Our Executive Officers and Directors

 

Executive Officers

Name

 

Age

 

Position

Jason Wilk

 

37

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

Kyle Beilman

 

35

 

Chief Financial Officer

 

Jason Wilk. Mr. Wilk co-founded Dave Inc. and has served as President and Chief Executive Officer since the closing of the Business Combination and prior to the Business Combination as Legacy Dave’s Chief Executive Officer since May 2016.

 

Kyle Beilman. Mr. Beilman has served as Chief Financial Officer and Secretary since the closing of the Business Combination and prior to the Business Combination served as Legacy Dave’s Chief Financial Officer since January 2021 and between July 2017 to October 2019 and Chief Operating Officer from October 2019 to January 2021.

 

Board of Directors

Name

 

Age

 

Position

Jason Wilk

 

37

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

Teresa Aragones

 

53

 

Marketing Advisor

Brendan Carroll

 

45

 

Senior Partner, Victory Park Capital Advisors, LLC

Andrea Mitchell

 

51

 

Managing Partner, Law firm of Mitchell Sandler LLC

Michael Pope

 

56

 

Former Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President, Shutterfly, Inc.

Dan Preston

 

37

 

Former Chief Executive Officer and Director, Metromile

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

In the course of conducting our business operations, we are exposed to a variety of risks. Any of the risk factors we describe below have affected or could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The market price of shares of our common stock could decline, possibly significantly or permanently, if one or more of these risks and uncertainties occurs. Certain statements in “Risk Factors” are forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires, the disclosures in this Item 1A refer to Dave Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries following the consummation of the Business Combination.

Summary Risk Factors

Our business is subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects. These risks are discussed more fully below and include, but are not limited to, risks related to:

The industries in which we compete are highly competitive, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
If we are unable to keep pace with the rapid technological developments in our industry and the larger financial services industry necessary to continue providing our Members with new and innovative products and services, the use of our platform and other products and services could decline. In addition, if the prices we charge for our products and services are unacceptable to our Members, our operating results will be harmed.
Our ExtraCash advances expose us to credit risk of our Members and if our underwriting criteria for making advances is not sufficient to mitigate against this risk, our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected if a substantial number of our Members fail to repay the ExtraCash advance they receive.

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We may not be able to scale our business quickly enough to meet our Members’ growing needs, and if we are not able to grow efficiently, our operating results could be harmed.
If we are unable to acquire new Members and retain our current members or sell additional functionality and services to them, our revenue growth will be adversely affected.
Dave has historically incurred losses in the operation of its business. We may never achieve or sustain profitability.
We operate in an uncertain regulatory environment and may from time to time be subject to governmental investigations or other inquiries by state, federal and local governmental authorities.
The financial services industry continues to be targeted by new laws or regulations in many jurisdictions, including the U.S. states in which we operate, that could restrict the products and services we offer, impose additional compliance costs on us, render our current operations unprofitable or even prohibit our current operations.
Our business is subject to extensive regulation and oversight in a variety of areas, including registration and licensing requirements under federal, state and local laws and regulations.
Stringent and changing laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection could result in claims, harm our results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects, or otherwise harm our business.
Dave identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting in its audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. If Dave is unable to remediate these material weaknesses, or if it identifies additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fails to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, it may not be able to accurately or timely report its financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect Dave’s business and share price.
Dave’s forecasted operating results and projections rely in large part upon assumptions, analyses and internal estimates developed by Dave’s management. If these assumptions, analyses or estimates prove to be incorrect or inaccurate, Dave’s actual operating results may differ materially and adversely from those forecasted or projected.
Fraudulent and other illegal activity involving our products and services could lead to reputational damage to us, reduce the use of our platform and services and may adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.
In the normal course of business, we collect, process, use and retain sensitive and confidential information regarding our Members and prospective Members, including data provided by and related to Members and their transactions, as well as other data of the counterparties to their payments. A data security breach could expose us to liability and protracted and costly litigation, and could adversely affect our reputation and operating revenues.
Dave’s management has limited experience in operating a public company.
We transfer funds to our Members daily, which in the aggregate comprise substantial sums, and are subject to the risk of errors, which could result in financial losses, damage to our reputation, or loss of trust in our brand, which would harm our business and financial results.
Dave Inc. has guaranteed up to $25,000,000 of one of its subsidiary’s obligations under a debt facility, and currently that limited guaranty is secured by a first-priority lien against substantially all of Dave Inc.’s assets. The debt facility contains financial covenants and other restrictions on our actions, which could limit our operational flexibility and otherwise adversely affect our financial condition.
If our present or any future key banking relationships are terminated and we are not able to secure or successfully migrate client portfolios to a new bank partner or partners, our business would be adversely affected.

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We depend upon several third-party service providers for processing our transactions and provide other important services for our business. If any of our agreements with our processing providers are terminated or if we experience any interruption or delay in the services provided by our third-party service providers, delivery of our products and services could be impaired or suspended and our business could suffer.
Our recent rapid growth, including growth in our volume of payments, may not be indicative of future growth, and if we continue to grow rapidly, we may not be able to manage our growth effectively. Our rapid growth also makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

The industries in which we compete are highly competitive, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

The industries in which we compete are highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant changes. We compete against companies and financial institutions across the retail banking, financial services, consumer technology and financial technology services industries, as well as other nonbank lenders serving credit-challenged consumers, including online marketplace lenders, check cashers, point-of-sale lenders and payday lenders. We may compete with others in the market who may in the future provide offerings similar to ours, particularly companies who may provide money management, lending and other services though a platform similar to our platform. These and other competitors in the banking and financial technology industries are introducing innovative products and services that may compete with ours. We expect that this competition will continue as banking and financial technology industries continue to evolve, particularly if non-traditional non-recourse advance providers and other parties gain greater market share in these industries. If we are unable to differentiate our products and platform from and successfully compete with those of our competitors, our business, results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

Many existing and potential competitors are entities substantially larger in size, have more resources, are more highly diversified in revenue and substantially more established with significantly more brand awareness than ours. As such, many of our competitors can leverage their size, robust networks, financial wherewithal, brand awareness, pricing power and technological assets to compete with us. To the extent new entrants gain market share, the purchase and use of our products and services would decline. If price competition materially intensifies, we may have to decrease the prices of our products and services, which would likely adversely affect the results of operations.

Our long-term success depends on our ability to compete effectively against existing and potential competitors that seek to provide banking and financial technology products and services. If we fail to compete effectively against these competitors, our revenues, results of operations, prospects for future growth and overall business will be materially and adversely affected.

If we are unable to keep pace with the rapid technological developments in our industry and the larger financial services industry necessary to continue providing our Members with new and innovative products and services, the use of our platform and other products and services could decline.

The financial services industry is subject to rapid and significant technological changes. We cannot predict the effect of technological changes on our business. We expect that new services and technologies applicable to our industry will continue to emerge, and these new services and technologies may be superior to, or render obsolete, the technologies we currently utilize in our products and services. Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to develop new technologies and adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards. These initiatives are inherently risky, and they may not be successful or may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, we may make future investments in, or enter into strategic partnerships to develop new technologies and services or to implement infrastructure to further our strategic objectives, strengthen our existing businesses and remain competitive. However, our ability to transition to new

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services and technologies that we develop may be inhibited by a lack of industry-wide standards, changes to the regulatory landscape, resistance by consumers to these changes, or by the intellectual property rights of third parties.

If the prices we charge for our products and services are unacceptable to our Members, our operating results will be harmed.

We generate revenue by charging Members a fixed monthly rate for membership to our platform as well as additional fees related to optional expedited delivery of advances. Members who obtain an ExtraCash advance through our platform also have the option to tip us. We also generate revenue from our Dave banking product through interchange and out-of-network ATM fees, as well as from our job portal service through referral fees from partner companies. As the market for our platform matures, as new or existing competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours or if general inflationary pressures continue, we may experience pricing pressure and be unable to retain current Members and attract new Members at prices that are consistent with our pricing model and operating budget. Our pricing strategy for new products and services we introduce may prove to be unappealing to our Members, and our competitors could choose to bundle certain products and services competitive with ours. If this were to occur, it is possible that we would have to change our pricing strategies or reduce our prices, which could harm our revenue, gross profits, and operating results.

Our ExtraCash advances expose us to credit risk of our Members and if our underwriting criteria for making advances is not sufficient to mitigate against this risk, our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected if a substantial number of our Members fail to repay the ExtraCash advance they receive.

Our ExtraCash advance product exposes us to financial losses if Members do not repay the advance we provide to them. The timing and volume of advance repayments have a significant impact on our financial results and cash flows. If a large number of Members do not repay advances, our financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.

Our underwriting standards may not offer adequate protection against the risk of non-payment, especially in periods of economic uncertainty such as has existed with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and more recently with rising interest rates and inflationary pressures.

Our ability to accurately forecast performance and determine an appropriate provision and allowance for credit losses, is critical to our business and financial results. The allowance for credit losses is established through a provision for credit losses based on management’s evaluation of the risk inherent in the cash advance portfolio, the composition of the portfolio, specific impaired advances, and current economic conditions. Please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

There can be no assurance that our performance forecasts will be accurate. In periods with changing economic conditions, rising interest rates and increasing inflationary pressures, accurately forecasting repayment of advances is more difficult. Our allowance for losses is an estimate, and if actual repayment defaults are materially greater than our allowance for losses, or more generally, if our forecasts are not accurate, our financial position, liquidity and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. For example, uncertainty surrounding the continuing economic impact of COVID-19 on our Members has made historical information on credit losses slightly less reliable in the current environment, and there can be no assurances that we have accurately estimated repayment rates.

We may not be able to scale our business quickly enough to meet our Members’ growing needs, and if we are not able to grow efficiently, our operating results could be harmed.

As usage of our platform grows and we sign additional strategic partners, we will need to devote additional resources to improving and maintaining our infrastructure and computer network and integrating with third-party applications to maintain the performance of our platform. In addition, we will need to appropriately scale our internal business systems and our services organization, including customer support, risk and compliance operations, and professional services, to serve our growing Member base.

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Any failure of or delay in these efforts could result in service interruptions, impaired system performance, and reduced Member satisfaction, which could hurt our revenue growth. If sustained or repeated, performance issues could reduce the attractiveness of our platform to Members and could result in lost Member opportunities, which could hurt our revenue growth, Member loyalty, and our reputation. Even if we are successful in these efforts to scale our business, they will be expensive and complex, and require the dedication of significant management time and attention. We could also face inefficiencies or service disruptions as a result of our efforts to scale our internal infrastructure. We cannot be sure that the expansion and improvements to our internal infrastructure will be effectively implemented on a timely basis, if at all, and such failures could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.

If we are unable to acquire new Members and retain our current members or sell additional functionality and services to them, our revenue growth will be adversely affected.

To increase our revenue, in addition to acquiring new Members, we must continue to retain existing Members and convince them to expand their use of our platform by increasing the number of Members and incentivizing them to pay for additional functionality. Our ability to retain our Members and increase their usage could be impaired for a variety of reasons, including member reaction to changes in the pricing of our products or the other risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As a result, we may be unable to retain existing Members or increase the usage of our platform by them, which would have an adverse effect on our business, revenue, gross margins, and other operating results, and accordingly, on the trading price of our common stock.

Our ability to sell additional functionality to our existing Members may require more sophisticated and costly sales efforts. Similarly, the rate at which our Members purchase additional products from us depends on several factors, including general economic conditions, such as rising interest rates and inflation, and the pricing of additional product functionality. If our efforts to sell additional functionality to our Members are not successful, our business and growth prospects would suffer.

Our member subscriptions are open-ended arrangements that can be terminated by the Member without penalty at any time. For us to maintain or improve our operating results, it is important that our Members continue to maintain their subscriptions on the same or more favorable terms. We cannot accurately predict renewal or expansion rates given the diversity of our member base in terms of size, industry, and geography. Our renewal and expansion rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of several factors, including member spending levels, member satisfaction with our platform, decreases in the number of Members, pricing changes, competitive conditions, the acquisition of our Members by other companies, and general economic conditions. If our Members do not renew their subscriptions, or if they reduce their usage of our platform, our revenue and other operating results will decline and our business will be adversely affected. If our renewal or expansion rates fall significantly below the expectations of the public market, securities analysts, or investors, the trading price of our common stock would likely decline.

We have limited operating history and face significant challenges as a new entrant in our industry.

Legacy Dave was incorporated in October 2015 and we have a relatively short operating history in the financial services industry, which is continuously evolving. We have limited experience to date in building consumer financial services technology. We cannot assure you that we will be able to develop products and services on our platform that will enable us to meet quality, price and engineering standards, as well as comply with any regulatory standards we may be subject to. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and significant challenges we face as a new entrant in our industry, including, among other things, with respect to our ability to:

build a well-recognized, trusted and respected brand;
establish and expand our Member base;
successfully market our products and services;
properly price our services and successfully anticipate the usage of such services by our Members;
improve and maintain our operational efficiency;
maintain a reliable, secure, high-performance and scalable technology infrastructure;

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predict our future revenues and appropriately budget our expenses;
attract, retain and motivate talented employees;
anticipate trends that may emerge and affect our business;
anticipate and adapt to changing market conditions, including technological developments and changes in competitive landscape; and
navigate an evolving and complex regulatory environment.

If we fail to address any or all of these risks and challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Changes in debit interchange rates could adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operations.

We expect interchange revenues from fees charged to merchants by card networks for processing a debit or credit payment to represent a significant percentage of our total operating revenues as adoption of our Dave banking product increases. The amount of interchange revenues that we earn is highly dependent on the interchange rates that the payment networks set and adjust from time to time.

The enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act required the Federal Reserve Board to implement regulations that have substantially limited interchange fees for many debit card issuers. While the interchange rates that may be earned by us are exempt from the limitations imposed by the Dodd-Frank Act, there can be no assurance that future regulation or changes by the payment networks will not impact our interchange revenues substantially. If interchange rates decline, whether due to actions by the payment networks or future regulation, we would likely need to change our fee structure to offset the loss of interchange revenues. To the extent we change the pricing of our Dave banking product, we might find it more difficult to acquire new Members, to maintain or grow Dave banking debit card usage and to retain existing Members. As a result, our total operating revenues, operating results, prospects for future growth and overall business could be materially and adversely affected.

If we lose key personnel, if their reputations are damaged, or if we are unable to attract and retain executives and employees we need to support our operations and growth, our business may be harmed.

Our success and future growth depend upon the continued services of our management team and other key employees who are critical to our overall management, as well as the continued development of our products, strategic partnerships, our culture and our strategic direction. We currently do not have “key person” insurance on any of our employees. The loss of one or more of our senior management team members or other key employees could disrupt or harm our business, and we may not be able to find adequate replacements. We cannot ensure that we will be able to retain the services of any members of our senior management or other key employees or that we would be able to timely replace members of our senior management or other key employees should any of them depart.

If we fail to offer high-quality customer support, or if our support is more expensive than anticipated, our business and reputation could suffer.

Our Members rely on our customer support services to resolve issues and realize the full benefits provided by our platform. High-quality support is also important for the renewal and expansion of our subscriptions with existing Members. We primarily provide customer support over chat and email. If we do not help our Members quickly resolve issues and provide effective ongoing support, or if our support personnel or methods of providing support are insufficient to meet the needs of our Members, our ability to retain Members, increase adoption by our existing Members and acquire new Members could suffer, and our reputation with existing or potential Members could be harmed. If we are not able to meet the customer support needs of our Members by chat and email during the hours that we currently provide support, we may need to increase our support coverage and provide additional phone-based support, which may reduce our profitability.

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If our present or any future key banking relationships are terminated and we are not able to secure or successfully migrate client portfolios to a new bank partner or partners, our business would be adversely affected.

We rely on agreements with Evolve to provide deposit accounts, debit card services and other transaction services to us and our Members. These agreements and corresponding regulations governing banks and financial institutions may give Evolve substantial discretion in approving certain aspects of our business practices, including our application and qualification procedures for Members and require us to comply with certain legal requirements. Evolve discretionary actions under these agreements could impose material limitations to, or have a material adverse effect on, our business, financial condition and results of operations. If our relationship with Evolve Bank is terminated, we would need to find another financial institution to provide those services, which could be difficult and expensive. If we are unable to find a replacement financial institution to provide the services we receive from Evolve, we would not be able to service our deposit accounts, debit cards and other services, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, our financial results could be adversely affected if our costs associated with using Evolve materially change or if any penalty or claim for damages is imposed as a result of our breach of our agreements with them or their other requirements.

Our recent rapid growth, including growth in our volume of payments, may not be indicative of our future growth, and if we continue to grow rapidly, we may not be able to manage our growth effectively. Our rapid growth also makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.

Our operating revenues increased from $153.0 million in 2021 to $204.8 million in 2022. Although we have recently experienced significant growth in our revenue and transaction volume, even if our revenue continues to increase, we expect our growth rate will decline in the future as a result of a variety of factors, including the increasing scale of our business. Overall growth of our revenue depends on a number of factors, including our ability to:

price our products and services effectively to attract new Members;
create new products and expand the functionality and scope of the products we offer on our platform;
maintain the rates at which Members subscribe to and continue to use our platform;
provide our Members with high-quality support that meets their needs;
introduce our products to new markets;
successfully identify and acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform;
increase awareness of our brand and successfully compete with other companies; and
manage the risks related to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, rising interest rates and inflation on our business and operations.

We may not successfully accomplish any of these objectives, which makes it difficult for us to forecast our future operating results. If the assumptions that we use to plan our business are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our market, or if we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or revenue growth, it may be difficult to achieve and maintain profitability. You should not rely on our revenue from any prior quarterly or annual periods as any indication of our future revenue or revenue or payment growth.

In addition, we expect to continue to expand substantial financial and other resources on:

product development, including investments in our product development team and the development of new products and new functionality for our platform;
sales, marketing and customer success;
technology infrastructure, including systems architecture, scalability, availability, performance and security;
acquisitions and/or strategic investments;

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regulatory compliance and risk management; and
general administration, including increased legal and accounting expenses associated with being a public company.

These investments may not result in increased revenue growth in our business. If we are unable to increase our revenue at a rate sufficient to offset the expected increase in our costs, or if we encounter difficulties in managing a growing volume of payments, our business, financial position and operating results will be adversely affected, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability over the long term.

Dave has historically incurred losses in the operation of its business. We may never achieve or sustain profitability.

Since incorporation in October 2015, we have been engaged in growth activities related to building our business, which requires substantial capital and other expenditures. We have incurred net losses in previous fiscal years, including fiscal year 2022, and we may incur losses again in the future. We expect our cash needs to increase significantly for the next several years as we:

market our products and services;
hire additional marketing, client support, engineering, product development and administrative personnel;
expand our client support and service operations; and
implement new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls.

As a result of these continuing costs and expenses, we need to generate significant revenues to attain and maintain profitability and positive cash flow. To date, our operations have been supported by equity and debt financings. If we do not continue to increase our revenues, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

We may require additional capital to support the growth of our business, and this capital may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

We have funded our operations since inception primarily through equity financings, sales of memberships to our platform, optional expedited processing fees and Member tips. We cannot be certain when or if our operations will generate sufficient cash to fully fund our ongoing operations or the growth of our business. We intend to continue to make investments to support our business, which may require us to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds.

We expect to have sufficient capital to fund our planned operations for the next 12 months. We may need to raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity related or debt securities, or through obtaining credit from government, financial institutions or other lenders. We cannot be certain that additional funds will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our operating results may fluctuate in the future.

Our quarterly and annual results of operations may fluctuate in the future, which may adversely affect our stock price. Fluctuations in our quarterly or annual results of operations might result from a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, but not limited to:

the election by our Members of expedited processing of our ExtraCash advance product;
the timing and volume of tips our Members send to us, advance payments and subscriptions and use of our products and services;

 

the timing and success of new product or service introductions by us or our competitors;

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fluctuations in Member retention rates;
changes in the mix of products and services that we provide to our Members;
the timing of commencement of new product development and initiatives, the timing of costs of existing product roll-outs and the length of time we must invest in those new products before they generate material operating revenues;
our ability to effectively sell our products through direct-to-consumer initiatives;
changes in our or our competitors’ pricing policies or sales terms;
costs associated with significant changes in our risk policies and controls;
the amount and timing of costs related to fraud losses;
the amount and timing of commencement and termination of major advertising campaigns, including partnerships and sponsorships;
disruptions in the performance of our products and services, and the associated financial impact thereof;
the amount and timing of costs of any major litigation to which we are a party;
the amount and timing of costs related to the acquisition of complementary businesses;
the amount and timing of capital expenditures and operating costs related to the maintenance and expansion of our business;
changes in our executive leadership team;
our ability to control costs, including third-party service provider costs and sales and marketing expenses in an increasingly competitive market; and
changes in the political or regulatory environment affecting the banking or financial technology service industries.

Fraudulent and other illegal activity involving our products and services could lead to reputational damage to us, cause us to incur financial losses, reduce the use of our platform and services and may adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.

Criminals are using increasingly sophisticated methods to engage in illegal activities using deposit account products or Member information. Illegal activities involving products and services like ours often include malicious social engineering schemes. Illegal activities may also include fraudulent payment or refund schemes and identity theft. We rely upon third parties for transaction processing services, which subjects us and our Members to risks related to the vulnerabilities of those third parties. A single significant incident of fraud, or increases in the overall level of fraud, involving our products and services, have in the past and could in the future, result in reputational damage to us. Such damage could reduce the use and acceptance of our products and services, cause our banking and strategic partners to cease doing business with us, or lead to greater regulation that would increase our compliance costs. Fraudulent activity could also result in the imposition of regulatory sanctions, including significant monetary fines, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

For example, in February 2021, we observed anomalous “chargeback” transaction volume in connection with the funding of Dave Banking accounts via debit card networks. After investigating, we discovered that these were fraudulent transactions exposing us to losses under the debit card network rules. In the third quarter of 2022, we experienced a fraud event which resulted in member advance write-offs of approximately $3.0 million. To address the challenges we face with respect to fraudulent activity of the nature outlined above and other activity as well, we have implemented risk control mechanisms that have made it more difficult for all Members, including legitimate Members, to obtain and use our Dave banking product. We believe it is likely that our risk control mechanisms may continue to adversely affect the growth of our Dave banking product for the foreseeable future and as a result, negatively impact our operating revenues.

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We are exposed to losses from Dave banking Member accounts.

Fraudulent activity involving our Dave banking account may lead to Member disputed transactions, for which we may be liable under banking regulations and payment network rules. Our fraud detection and risk control mechanisms may not prevent all fraudulent or illegal activity. To the extent we incur losses from disputed transactions, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, our Members can incur charges in excess of the funds available in their accounts, and we may become liable for these overdrafts. While we decline authorization attempts for amounts that exceed the available balance in a Member’s account, the application of payment network rules and the timing of the settlement of transactions, among other things, can result in overdrawn accounts.

Our remaining overdraft exposure arises primarily from late-posting. A late-post occurs when a merchant posts a transaction within a payment network-permitted timeframe, but subsequent to our release of the authorization for that transaction, as permitted by payment network rules. Under payment network rules, we may be liable for the transaction amount even if the Member has made additional purchases in the intervening period and funds are no longer available in the Member’s account at the time the transaction is posted.

We transfer funds to our Members daily, which in the aggregate comprise substantial sums, and are subject to the risk of errors, which could result in financial losses, damage to our reputation, or loss of trust in our brand, which would harm our business and financial results.

We have grown rapidly and seek to continue to grow, and although we maintain a robust and multi-faceted risk management process, our business is always subject to the risk of financial losses as a result of operational errors, software defects, service disruption, employee misconduct, security breaches, or other similar actions or errors on our platform. Software errors in our platform and operational errors by our employees may also expose us to losses.

Moreover, our trustworthiness and reputation are fundamental to our business. The occurrence of any operational errors, software defects, service disruption, employee misconduct, security breaches, or other similar actions or errors on our platform could result in financial losses to our business and our Members, loss of trust, damage to our reputation, or termination of our agreements with strategic partners, each of which could result in:

loss of Members;
lost or delayed market acceptance and sales of our products and services;
legal claims against us;
regulatory enforcement action; or
diversion of our resources, including through increased service expenses or financial concessions, and increased insurance costs.

Although we maintain insurance to cover losses resulting from our errors and omissions, there can be no assurance that our insurance will cover all losses or our coverage will be sufficient to cover our losses. If we suffer significant losses or reputational harm as a result, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Cyberattacks and other security breaches or disruptions suffered by us or third parties upon which we rely could have a materially adverse effect on our business, harm our reputation and expose us to public scrutiny and liability.

In the normal course of business, we collect, process, use and retain sensitive and confidential information regarding our Members and prospective Members, including data provided by and related to Members and their transactions, as well as other data of the counterparties to their payments. We also have arrangements in place with certain third-party service providers that require us to share consumer information. Information security risks in the financial services industry continue to increase generally, in part because of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies (including mobile devices) to conduct financial and other business transactions and the increased sophistication and activities of organized criminals, perpetrators of fraud, hackers, terrorists and

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other malicious third parties. In addition to cyberattacks and other security breaches involving the theft of sensitive and confidential information, hackers, terrorists, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors and other malicious third parties recently have engaged in attacks that are designed to disrupt key business services, such as consumer-facing websites.

These cybersecurity challenges, including threats to our own IT infrastructure or those of third-party providers, may take a variety of forms ranging from stolen bank accounts, business email compromise, user fraud, account takeover, check fraud or cybersecurity attacks, such as ransomware, unauthorized encryption, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering, unauthorized access, spam or other attacks, to “mega breaches” targeted against cloud-based services and other hosted software, which could be initiated by individual or groups of hackers or sophisticated cyber criminals. A cybersecurity incident or breach could result in disclosure of confidential information and intellectual property, or cause service interruptions and compromised data. We may be unable to anticipate or prevent techniques used in the future to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems because they change frequently and often are not detected until after an incident has occurred. We have administrative, technical, and physical security measures in place, and we have policies and procedures in place to contractually require service providers to whom we disclose data to implement and maintain reasonable privacy and security measures. Despite our security measures, and those of our third-party vendors, our information technology and infrastructure has experienced breaches and may be subject or vulnerable in the future to breaches or attacks. If our own confidential business information were improperly disclosed, our business could be materially and adversely affected. A core aspect of our business is the reliability and security of our platform. Any perceived or actual breach of security, regardless of how it occurs or the extent of the breach, could have a significant impact on our reputation as a trusted brand, cause us to lose existing partners or Members, prevent us from obtaining new partners and Members, require us to expend significant funds to remedy problems caused by breaches and implement measures to prevent further breaches, and expose us to legal risk and potential liability including from governmental or regulatory investigations, class action litigation and other lawsuits. If sensitive information is lost or improperly disclosed through a data breach or otherwise or threatened to be disclosed, we could experience a loss of confidence by our partners and Members in the security of our systems, products and services and prevent us from obtaining new partners and Members, and we could incur significant costs to remedy problems caused by breaches and implement measures to prevent further breaches, and expose us to legal risk and potential liability and penalties, including from governmental or regulatory investigations, class action litigation and other lawsuits, all of which could adversely affect our reputation and our operating results. Any actual or perceived security breach at a company providing services to us or our Members could have similar effects.

Most jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities and others of security breaches involving certain types of data. In addition, our agreements with certain partners and service providers may require us to notify them in the event of a security breach. Such mandatory disclosures are costly, could lead to negative publicity, may cause our Members to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures and require us to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to and/or alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach. A security breach of any of our vendors that processes personally identifiable information of our Members may pose similar risks.

In May 2020, an unauthorized third party attempted to gain access to Dave Member accounts and was able to access Member profiles and Members’ partial or incomplete bank account information. We did not uncover any evidence that the attacker was able to take any actions with respect to the data, other than gaining read access to it, nor do we believe any unauthorized transactions were made or advances requested on the Dave system. We provided notice to relevant parties as required under applicable law and agreements and took steps to set up alerts to detect abnormal request volumes and introduced rate limiting at the IP address level. In addition, in June 2020, we were notified of an unauthorized third party breach of our Dave database. The third party was able to access to Dave’s system by breaching the system of one of Dave’s third party service providers. The attacker was able to download a large data set, including encrypted social security numbers for some Members; however, there was no evidence that unauthorized transactions were made or advances requested on the Dave system, nor do we believe that the third party gained access to decryption keys or was otherwise able to decrypt encrypted information. We took remedial measures, including the engagement of an outside security consultant to monitor for ongoing dark web activity and to conduct a security audit and incident investigation, and notified relevant parties as required under applicable law and agreements. As a result of these breaches, Dave did not experience any material adverse impact to its business or operation and any costs and expenses relating to such security breaches were not material to Dave. As we have

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increased our Member base and our brand has become more widely known and recognized, third parties may continue to seek to compromise our security controls or gain unauthorized access to our sensitive corporate information or our Members’ data.

If our banking partner or other strategic partners were to conclude that our systems and procedures are insufficiently rigorous, they could terminate their relationships with us, and our financial results and business could be adversely affected. Under our terms of service and our contracts with strategic partners, if there is a breach of nonpublic personal information of our Members that we store, we could be liable to the partner for their losses and related expenses.

While we maintain cybersecurity insurance, our insurance may be insufficient or may not cover all liabilities incurred by such attacks. We also cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data handling or data security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results, and reputation.

We guarantee certain obligations of one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, which guaranty is secured by a first-priority lien against substantially all of our assets, and contains financial covenants and other restrictions on our actions, which could limit our operational flexibility and otherwise adversely affect our financial condition.

One of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Dave OD Funding has a senior secured debt facility with Victory Park Capital Advisors, LLC and its affiliates (the “Debt Facility”). We have guaranteed up to $25,000,000 of Dave OD Funding’s obligations under the Debt Facility, and currently that limited guaranty is secured by a first-priority lien against substantially all of our assets. The Debt Facility contains financial covenants and other restrictions on our actions, which could limit our operational flexibility and otherwise adversely affect our financial condition.

We depend upon several third-party service providers for processing our transactions and provide other important services for our business. If any of our agreements with our processing providers are terminated or if we experience any interruption or delay in the services provided by our third-party service providers, delivery of our products and services could be impaired or suspended and our business could suffer.

Our business involves processing of large numbers of transactions and management of the data necessary to do so. Our success depends upon the efficient and error-free handling of the money that is collected, remitted or deposited in connection with the provision of our products and services. We rely on the ability of our vendors and third-parties to process and facilitate these transactions, including ACH processing (as we are not a bank), and debit card payment processing, in an efficient, uninterrupted and error-free manner. We also rely on third-party service providers to perform various functions relating to our business, including software development, marketing, operational functions, fraud detection, cloud infrastructure services, information technology, data analysis, and, because we are not a bank and cannot belong or directly access the ACH payment network, ACH processing, and debit card payment processing.

While we oversee these service providers to ensure they provide services in accordance with our agreements and regulatory requirements, we do not have control over the operations of any of the third-party service providers that we utilize. In the event that a third-party service provider fails to perform such functions for any reason, including negligence, willful misconduct or fraud, fire, natural disaster, power loss, telecommunication failures, software and hardware defects, terrorist attacks and similar events, our ability to process payments and perform other operational functions for which we currently rely on such third-party service providers will suffer and our business, cash flows and future prospects may be negatively impacted.

We use both internally developed and third-party systems, including cloud computing and storage systems, for our services and certain aspects of transaction processing. Any damage to, or failure of, third party computer network systems or data centers generally, or those of our vendors (including as a result of disruptions at our third-party data center hosting facilities and cloud providers), or an improper action by our employees, agents or third-party vendors,

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could result in interruptions in our services, causing Members and other partners to become dissatisfied with our products and services or subject us to potential financial losses. Sustained or repeated system failures could reduce the attractiveness of our products and services, and result in Member attrition, thereby reducing operating revenue and harming our results of operations. Further, negative publicity arising from these types of disruptions could be damaging to our reputation and may adversely impact use of our products and services, including our platform, and adversely affect our ability to attract new Members and business partners.

If we fail to adequately protect our proprietary rights, our competitive position could be impaired and we may lose valuable assets, generate less revenue and incur costly litigation to protect our rights.

Our success is dependent, in part, upon protecting our proprietary technology and rights. We rely on a combination of copyrights, trademarks, trade secret laws, and contractual provisions to establish and protect our proprietary rights. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may be inadequate. Any of our trademarks or other intellectual property rights may be challenged or circumvented by others or invalidated through administrative process or litigation. Furthermore, legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability, and scope of protection of intellectual property rights are uncertain. Despite our precautions, it may be possible for unauthorized third parties to copy our products and use information that we regard as proprietary to create products and services that compete with ours.

No assurance can be given that the contractual agreements we enter into to establish and protect our proprietary rights will be effective in controlling access to and distribution of our products and proprietary information. Further, these agreements do not prevent our competitors or partners from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our platform.

Real or perceived software errors, failures, bugs, defects, or outages could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our platform and our internal systems rely on software that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our platform and our internal systems depend on the ability of such software to store, retrieve, process, and manage immense amounts of data. As a result, undetected errors, failures, bugs, or defects may be present in such software or occur in the future in such software, including open source software and other software we license from third parties, especially when updates or new products or services are released.

Any real or perceived errors, failures, bugs, or defects in the software may not be found until our Members use our platform and could result in outages or degraded quality of service on our platform that could adversely impact our business, as well as cause negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products and services, and harm to our brand or weakening of our competitive position. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, to expend significant additional resources in order to correct the problem. Any real or perceived errors, failures, bugs, or defects in the software we rely on could also subject us to liability claims, impair our ability to attract new Members, retain existing Members, or expand their use of our products and services, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Dave’s management has limited experience in operating a public company.

Many of our senior management team have limited experience in the management of a publicly-traded company. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities, which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the company’s operations. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in accounting policies, compliance practices or internal controls required of public companies. For example, lack of a sufficient number of accounting and finance professionals contributed to material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting as described in Item 9A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The development and implementation of the standards and controls and the hiring of experienced personnel necessary to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company may require expenditures greater than expected, and a delay could impact our ability to accurately and timely report our operating results, timely file required reports with the SEC and comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”). We have expanded our

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employee base to support our operations as a public company and it is possible that additional employees may need to be hired, which will increase its operating costs in future periods.

Dave identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting in its audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. If Dave is unable to remediate these material weaknesses, or if it identifies additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fails to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, it may not be able to accurately or timely report its financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect Dave’s business and share price.

In connection with the preparation and audits of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, material weaknesses were identified in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of its annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

As of December 31, 2022, material weaknesses were identified in our internal control over financial reporting. These material weaknesses, as well as our remediation plans, are described in Item 9A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

While we believe these efforts will be sufficient to remediate the material weaknesses, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete our evaluation, testing or any required remediation in a timely fashion, or at all or that the measures we have taken to date and may take in the future will prevent or avoid potential future material weaknesses. The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting is subject to various inherent limitations, including cost limitations, judgments used in decision making, assumptions about the likelihood of future events, the possibility of human error and the risk of fraud. If we are unable to remediate the material weaknesses or identify additional material weakness in the future, our ability to record, process and report financial information accurately, and to prepare financial statements within the time periods required by the SEC, could be adversely affected which, in turn, may adversely affect our reputation and business and the market price of the Company’s Class A Common Stock. In addition, any such failures could result in litigation or regulatory actions by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, loss of investor confidence, delisting of our securities and harm to our reputation and financial condition, or diversion of financial and management resources from the operation of our business.

We strive to deliver simple, transparent, and fair financial products, which may conflict with the short-term interests of our stockholders.

Our core principle, and the foundation on which we have built our company, is to deliver simple, transparent, and fair financial products. Therefore, we have made in the past, and may make in the future, decisions that we believe will benefit our Members and therefore provide long-term benefits for our business, even if our decision negatively impacts our short-term results of operations. For example, the advances facilitated through our platform have no mandatory fees. Our decisions may negatively impact our short-term financial results or not provide the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case the success of our business and results of operations could be harmed.

Negative publicity about us or our industry could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Negative publicity about us or our industry, even if inaccurate, could adversely affect our reputation and the confidence in, and use of our platform, potentially harming our reputation and causing disruptions to our platform. Such negative publicity could involve: the transparency, fairness, Member experience, quality, and reliability of our platform or consumer fintech platforms in general, the effectiveness of our risk models, our ability to effectively manage and resolve complaints, our privacy and security practices, litigation, regulatory activity, misconduct by our employees, funding sources, bank partners, service providers, or others in our industry, the experience of consumers with our platform or services. Any such reputational harm could further affect the behavior of consumers, including their willingness to obtain advances, deposit accounts, and other products and services facilitated through our platform. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

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Our business, financial condition and results of operations have and may continue to be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic or other similar epidemics or adverse public health developments, including government responses to such events.

There are many uncertainties regarding the current global pandemic involving a novel strain of coronavirus, and the Company continues to closely monitor the impact of the pandemic on all aspects of its business, including how it has and may in the future impact its Members, employees, suppliers, vendors, and business partners. The duration and magnitude of the continuing effects of COVID-19 on the Company’s Members remain uncertain and dependent on various factors, including the continued severity and transmission rate of the virus, new variants of the virus which may evade vaccines and developed treatments for COVID-19, the nature of and duration for which preventative measures are instituted and remain in place, the extent and effectiveness of containment and mitigation efforts, including vaccination programs, and the type of stimulus measures and other policy responses that the U.S. government may further adopt.

The Company’s business and operations were disrupted by the conditions caused by COVID-19, which adversely affected Members’ spending levels and disposable income. In general, overall economic conditions potentially increases Members’ credit risk. Economic conditions that affect personal finances of Members could also impact repayment of advances that we make to our Members. The Company is concurrently evaluating its policies around the level and extent of Members’ cash advances and corresponding credit risk. The Company expects to continue to assess the evolving impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and intends to make adjustments to its responses accordingly.

Additionally, concerns over the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and variants of the virus that have emerged have in the past caused volatility in financial and other capital markets and any such volatility may adversely affect our stock price and our ability to access capital markets in the future.

If we cannot maintain our company culture as we grow, our success and our business may be harmed.

We believe our culture has been a key contributor to our success to date and that the nature of the platform that we provide promotes a sense of greater purpose and fulfillment in our employees. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel, which is critical to our growth, and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives. As we grow and develop the infrastructure of a public company, we may find it difficult to maintain these important aspects of our culture. If we fail to maintain our company culture, our business and competitive position may be adversely affected.

We use open source software in our products, which could subject us to litigation or other actions.

We use open source software in our products. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate it into their products. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition, or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our products. In addition, if we were to combine our proprietary software products with open source software in a certain manner under certain open source licenses, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software products. If we inappropriately use or incorporate open source software subject to certain types of open source licenses that challenge the proprietary nature of our products, we may be required to re-engineer such products, discontinue the sale of such products, or take other remedial actions.

Natural catastrophic events, pandemics and man-made problems such as power disruptions, computer viruses, data security breaches, and terrorism may disrupt our business.

Natural disasters, pandemics such as COVID-19, or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, international commerce and the global economy, and thus could harm our business. We have a large employee presence in Los Angeles, California, and our data centers are located in the Midwest. The west coast of the United States contains active earthquake zones and the greater Los Angeles area has experienced major fire danger in the past five years and may experience major fires in the future. In the event of a major earthquake,

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hurricane or catastrophic event such as fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, war, or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our application development, lengthy interruptions in the availability of our products and services, breaches of data security, and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.

Additionally, as computer malware, viruses, and computer hacking, fraudulent use attempts, and phishing attacks have become more prevalent, we, and third parties upon which we rely, face increased risk in maintaining the performance, reliability, security, and availability of our solutions and related services and technical infrastructure to the satisfaction of our Members. Any computer malware, viruses, computer hacking, fraudulent use attempts, phishing attacks, or other data security breaches related to our network infrastructure or information technology systems or to computer hardware we lease from third parties, could, among other things, harm our reputation and our ability to retain existing Members and attract new Members.

In addition, the insurance we maintain may be insufficient to cover our losses resulting from disasters, cyber-attacks, or other business interruptions, and any incidents may result in loss of, or increased costs of, such insurance.

Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Matters

Our business is subject to extensive regulation and oversight in a variety of areas, including registration and licensing requirements under federal, state and local laws and regulations.

We are subject to extensive regulation under United States federal and state laws and regulations. Regulators have broad discretion with respect to the interpretation, implementation, and enforcement of these laws and regulations, including through enforcement actions that could subject us to civil money penalties, Member remediations, increased compliance costs, and limits or prohibitions on our ability to offer certain products or services or to engage in certain activities. Any failure or perceived failure to comply with any of these laws or regulations could subject us to lawsuits or governmental actions and/or damage our reputation, which could materially and adversely affect our business. Moreover, any competitors subject to different, or in some cases less restrictive, legislative or regulatory regimes may have or obtain a competitive advantage over us.

We are subject to the regulatory and enforcement authority of the CFPB, which oversees compliance with federal consumer financial protection laws. In addition, our partnership with Evolve is subject to the supervisory authority of the Federal Reserve, which is Evolve’s primary federal bank regulator. The CFPB has broad enforcement powers, and upon determining a violation of applicable law has occurred can order, among other things, rescission or reformation of contracts, the refund of moneys, restitution, disgorgement or compensation for unjust enrichment, the payment of damages or other monetary relief, public notifications regarding violations, limits on activities or functions, remediation of practices, external compliance monitoring and civil money penalties. The cost of responding to investigations can be substantial and an adverse resolution to an investigation, including a consent order or other settlement, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and future prospects.

In June 2020, we received a Civil Investigative Demand (“CID”) notifying us that the CFPB had opened a non-public investigation into various aspects of our ExtraCash advance business in compliance with the prohibition against UDAAPs, the EFTA, and, to the extent it applies, the Truth in Lending Act. We provided the CFPB with all information and documents required by the CID, and on September 27, 2021, the CFPB staff notified us that it currently did not intend to recommend that the CFPB take any enforcement action. In addition, on July 15, 2022, a purported class action was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California alleging violations of California consumer protection laws and state and federal lending laws, among other things. The complaint seeks injunctive relief, damages, restitution, nonrestitutionary disgorgement, pre- and post-judgment interest and reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs. The Company is actively litigating this matter and cannot estimate the likely outcome at this time.

We have been and may in the future also be subject to investigations and potential enforcement actions that may be brought by state regulatory authorities, state attorneys general or other state enforcement authorities and other governmental agencies. Any such actions could subject us to civil money penalties and fines, Member remediations,

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and increased compliance costs, damage our reputation and brand and limit or prohibit our ability to offer certain products and services or engage in certain business practices. Further, in some cases, regardless of fault, it may be less time-consuming or costly to settle these matters, which may require us to implement certain changes to our business practices, provide remediation to certain individuals or make a settlement payment to a given party or regulatory body.

The financial services industry continues to be targeted by new laws or regulations in many jurisdictions, including the U.S. states in which we operate, that could restrict the products and services we offer, impose additional compliance costs on us, render our current operations unprofitable or even prohibit our current operations.

We are required to comply with frequently changing federal, state, and local laws and regulations that regulate, among other things, the terms of the financial products and services we offer. New laws or regulations may require us to incur significant expenses to ensure compliance. Federal and state regulators of consumer financial products and services are also enforcing existing laws, regulations, and rules more aggressively, and enhancing their supervisory expectations regarding the management of legal and regulatory compliance risks. For example, State attorneys general have indicated that they will take a more active role in enforcing consumer protection laws, including through the establishment of state consumer protection agencies as well as the use of Dodd-Frank Act provisions that authorize state attorneys general to enforce certain provisions of federal consumer financial laws and obtain civil money penalties and other relief available to the CFPB.

In addition, regulators are interpreting existing laws, regulations and rules in new and different ways as they attempt to apply them to novel products and business models such as ours. Changes in the laws, regulations and enforcement priorities applicable to our business, or changes in the way existing laws and regulations are interpreted and applied to us, could have a material impact on our business model, operations and financial position. In some cases, these measures could even directly prohibit some or all of our current business activities in certain jurisdictions or render them unprofitable and/or impractical to continue.

The application of traditional federal and state consumer protection statutes and related regulations to innovative products offered by financial technology companies such as us is often uncertain, evolving and unsettled. To the extent that our products are deemed to be subject to any such laws, we could be subject to additional compliance obligations, including state licensing requirements, disclosure requirements and usury or fee limitations, among other things. Application of such requirements and restrictions to our products and services could require us to make significant changes to our business practices (which may increase our operating expenses and/or decrease revenue) and, in the event of retroactive application of such laws, subject us to litigation or enforcement actions that could result in the payment of damages, restitution, monetary penalties, injunctive restrictions, or other sanctions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, and results of operations.

Further, we may not be able to respond quickly or effectively to regulatory, legislative, and other developments, and these changes may in turn impair our ability to offer our existing or planned features, products, and services and/or increase our cost of doing business. In addition, we expect to continue to launch new products and services in the coming years, which may subject us to additional legal and regulatory requirements under federal, state and local laws and regulations. To the extent the application of these laws or regulations to our new offerings is unclear or evolving, including changing interpretations and the implementation of new or varying regulatory requirements by federal or state governments and regulators, this may significantly affect or change our proposed business model, increase our operating expenses and hinder or delay our anticipated launch timelines for new products and services.

If we were to become directly subject to banking regulations or be subjected to additional third-party risk management obligations, our business model may need to be substantially altered and we may not be able to continue to operate our business as it is currently operated.

We are not currently subject to laws and regulations applicable to traditional banks. However, banking products made available through us by our bank partner remain subject to regulation and supervision by our bank partner’s regulators and we, as a service provider to our bank partner, undertake certain compliance obligations. If we were to become directly subject to banking regulations or if the third-party risk management requirements applicable to us were to change, our business model may need to be substantially altered and we may not be able to continue to

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operate our business as it is currently operated. Failure by us, or any of our business partners, to comply with applicable laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.

We operate in an uncertain regulatory environment and may from time to time be subject to governmental investigations or other inquiries by state, federal and local governmental authorities.

Determinations of compliance with applicable legal and regulatory requirements can be highly technical and subject to varying interpretations. From time to time we become aware of instances where our products and services have not fully complied with requirements under applicable laws and regulations. When we become aware of such an instance, whether as a result of our compliance reviews, regulatory inquiry, Member complaint or otherwise, we generally conduct a review of the activity in question and determine how to address it, such as modifying the product, making Member refunds or taking other remedial actions.

Failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations, rules and guidance, or any finding that our past forms, practices, processes, procedures, controls or infrastructure were insufficient or not in compliance, could subject us to regulatory enforcement actions, result in the assessment against us of civil, monetary, criminal or other penalties (some of which could be significant in the case of knowing or reckless violations), result in the issuance of cease and desist orders (which can include orders for restitution, as well as other kinds of affirmative relief), require us to refund payments, interest or fees, result in a determination that certain financial products are not collectible, result in a suspension or revocation of licenses or authorization to transact business, result in a finding that we have engaged in unfair and deceptive acts or practices, limit our access to services provided by third-party financial institutions or cause damage to our reputation, brands and valued Member relationships. We may also incur additional, substantial expenses to bring those products and services into compliance with the laws of various jurisdictions or as a result choose to stop offering certain products and services in certain jurisdictions.

Our failure to comply with any regulations, rules, or guidance applicable to our business could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, changes to, or the discontinuation of, certain products and services necessary to maintain compliance with regulatory and legal requirements or to adequately manage compliance-related risks may result in corresponding changes to or limitations on the fees we can charge and other sources of revenue we currently rely upon. Such failures or changes to our products, services or business may have substantial adverse effects on our prospects, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows and could prohibit or directly or indirectly impair our ability to continue current operations.

If we were found to be operating without having obtained necessary state or local licenses, it could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Certain states have adopted laws regulating and requiring licensing, registration, notice filing, or other approval by parties that engage in certain activities regarding consumer finance transactions. We have also received inquiries from state regulatory agencies regarding requirements to obtain licenses from or register with those states, including in states where we have determined that we are not required to obtain such a license or be registered with the state, and we expect to continue to receive such inquiries. The application of some consumer financial licensing laws to our platform and the related activities it performs is unclear. In addition, state licensing requirements may evolve over time, including, in particular, recent trends in legislation seeking to impose licensing requirements and regulation of parties engaged in non-recourse advance activities.

If we were found to be in violation of applicable state licensing requirements by a court or a state, federal, or local enforcement agency, or agree to resolve such concerns by voluntary agreement, we could be subject to or agree to pay fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas), criminal penalties, and other penalties or consequences, and the advances facilitated through our platform could be rendered void in whole or in part, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. For example, we have received and responded to inquiries from various states, in each case regarding whether the advance products we offer in those states should subject us to state licensing and related requirements. In December 2021, we entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (“CA DFPI”). The MOU requires us to provide the

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CA DFPI with certain information as requested by the CA DFPI and adhere to certain best practices in connection with our ExtraCash advance product (including certain disclosures related to us not being licensed by the CA DFPI).

Stringent and changing laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection could result in claims, harm our results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects, or otherwise harm our business.

We are subject to a variety of laws, rules, directives, and regulations, as well as contractual obligations, relating to the processing of personal information, including personally identifiable information. The regulatory framework for privacy and data protection worldwide is rapidly evolving and, as a result, implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to continue to evolve for the foreseeable future. Legislators and regulators are increasingly adopting or revising privacy and data protection laws, rules, directives, and regulations that could have a significant impact on our current and planned privacy and data protection-related practices, our processing of consumer or employee information, and our current or planned business activities.

Compliance with current or future privacy and data protection laws (including those regarding security breach notification) affecting consumer and/or employee data to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services (such as products or services that involve us sharing information with third parties or storing sensitive information), which could materially and adversely affect our profitability and could reduce income from certain business initiatives.

Our failure, or the failure of any third party with whom we work, to comply with privacy and data protection laws could result in potentially significant regulatory investigations and government actions, litigation, fines, or sanctions, consumer, funding source, or bank partner actions, and damage to our reputation and brand, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Complying with privacy and data protection laws and regulations may cause us to incur substantial operational costs or require us to change our business practices. We may not be successful in our efforts to achieve compliance either due to internal or external factors, such as resource allocation limitations or a lack of vendor cooperation. We have in the past, and may in the future, receive complaints or notifications from third parties alleging that we have violated applicable privacy and data protection laws and regulations. Non-compliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, consumers, or others.

In addition to government regulation, privacy advocates and industry groups may propose new and different self-regulatory standards that may apply to us. Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws, regulations, rules, and other standards are still uncertain, it is possible that these laws, rules, regulations, and other actual or alleged legal obligations, such as contractual or self-regulatory obligations, may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the functionality of our platform. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits and other claims, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or which could have an adverse effect on our business.

Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with laws, regulations, policies, legal, or contractual obligations, industry standards, or regulatory guidance relating to privacy or data security, may result in governmental investigations and enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties, or adverse publicity, and could cause our Members and partners to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations, and industry standards relating to privacy, data protection, marketing, consumer communications, and information security, and we cannot determine the impact such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on our business. Future laws, regulations, standards, and other obligations or any changed interpretation of existing laws or regulations could impair our ability to develop and market new functionality and maintain and grow our Member base and increase revenue. Future restrictions on the collection, use, sharing, or disclosure of data, or additional requirements for express or implied consent of our Members, partners, or end users for the use and disclosure of such information could require us to incur additional costs or modify our platform, possibly in a material manner, and could limit our ability to develop new functionality.

If we are not able to comply with these laws or regulations, or if we become liable under these laws or regulations, we could be directly harmed, and we may be forced to implement new measures to reduce our exposure to this liability. This may require us to expend substantial resources or to discontinue certain products, which would negatively affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. In addition, the increased attention focused upon liability issues as a result of lawsuits and legislative proposals could harm our reputation or otherwise

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adversely affect the growth of our business. Furthermore, any costs incurred as a result of this potential liability could harm our operating results.

Any future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.

We have in the past and may in the future become subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by our Members in connection with commercial disputes, employment claims made by our current or former employees, or claims for reimbursement following misappropriation of Member data. Litigation might result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, which might seriously harm our business, overall financial condition, and operating results. Insurance might not cover such claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more such claims, and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, thereby reducing our operating results and leading analysts or potential investors to reduce their expectations of our performance, which could reduce the trading price of our stock.

Risks Relating to Ownership of our Securities

The dual class structure of our Common Stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with Jason Wilk, Dave’s founder, Chief Executive Officer and President and a member of the Dave Board of Directors. This will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters, including the outcome of important transactions, including a change in control.

Shares of Dave Class V Common Stock will have 10 votes per share, while shares of Dave Class A Common Stock will have one vote per share. Jason Wilk, Dave’s co-founder and its Chief Executive Officer and President, respectively, holds all of the issued and outstanding shares of Dave Class V Common Stock. Accordingly, as of March 1, 2023, Mr. Wilk holds approximately 60.0% of the voting power of our capital stock on an outstanding basis and will be able to control matters submitted to its stockholders for approval, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of Dave’s assets or other major corporate transactions. Mr. Wilk may have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests This concentrated control may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of Dave, could deprive its stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their capital stock as part of a sale of Dave and might ultimately affect the market price of shares of Dave Class A Common Stock. For information about Dave’s dual class structure, see the section titled “Description of Securities.”

Dave’s dual class structure may depress the trading price of our Dave Class A Common Stock.

Dave cannot predict whether its dual class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of the Dave Class A Common Stock or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indexes. S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell have announced changes to their eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies on certain indices, including the S&P 500, pursuant to which companies with multiple classes of shares of common stock are excluded. In addition, several stockholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structures. As a result, the dual class structure of Dave’s Common Stock may cause stockholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about Dave’s corporate governance practices or otherwise seek to cause Dave to change its capital structure. Any such exclusion from indices or any actions or publications by stockholder advisory firms critical of Dave’s corporate governance practices or capital structure could adversely affect the value and trading market of the Dave Class A Common Stock.

Our stock price is volatile.

The trading price of the Dave Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants is volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond Dave’s control. These factors include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in operating results;

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failure to meet or exceed financial estimates and projections of the investment community or that Dave provides to the public;
issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts or changed recommendations for the industry in general;
announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;
operating and share price performance of other companies in the industry or related markets;
the timing and magnitude of investments in the growth of the business;
actual or anticipated changes in laws and regulations;
additions or departures of key management or other personnel;
increased labor costs;
disputes or other developments related to intellectual property or other proprietary rights, including litigation;
the ability to market new and enhanced solutions on a timely basis;
sales of substantial amounts of the Dave Class A Common Stock by Dave’s directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur;

 

changes in capital structure, including future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt; and
general economic, political and market conditions, including rising interest rates.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the stock prices of technology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of Dave Class A Common Stock, regardless of actual operating performance. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources.

Dave has never paid cash dividends on our capital stock and does not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future.

Dave has never paid cash dividends on our capital stock and currently intends to retain any future earnings to fund the growth of its business. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of the Board and will depend on Dave’s financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our Dave Class A Common Stock will be the sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and applicable laws could impair a takeover attempt.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws afford certain rights and powers to the Board that could contribute to the delay or prevention of an acquisition that it deems undesirable. Dave is also subject to Section 203 of the DGCL and other provisions of Delaware law that limit the ability of stockholders in certain situations to effect certain business combinations. Any of the foregoing provisions and terms that have the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of Dave Class A Common Stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for the Dave Class A Common Stock.

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Dave is subject to risks related to taxation in the United States.

Significant judgments based on interpretations of existing tax laws or regulations are required in determining Dave’s provision for income taxes. Dave’s effective income tax rate could be adversely affected by various factors, including, but not limited to, changes in the mix of earnings in tax jurisdictions with different statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in existing tax policies, laws, regulations or rates, changes in the level of non-deductible expenses (including share-based compensation), changes in the location of Dave’s operations, changes in Dave’s future levels of research and development spending, mergers and acquisitions or the results of examinations by various tax authorities. Although Dave believes its tax estimates are reasonable, if the IRS or any other taxing authority disagrees with the positions taken on its tax returns, Dave could have additional tax liability, including interest and penalties. If material, payment of such additional amounts upon final adjudication of any disputes could have a material impact on our results of operations and financial position.

Changes to applicable tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect Dave’s business and future profitability.

Dave is a U.S. corporation and thus subject to U.S. corporate income tax on its worldwide income. Further, since Dave’s operations and customers are located throughout the United States, Dave will be subject to various U.S. state and local taxes. U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax laws, policies, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to Dave and may have an adverse effect on its business and future profitability.

For example, several tax proposals have been set forth that would, if enacted, make significant changes to U.S. tax laws. Such proposals include an increase in the U.S. income tax rate applicable to corporations (such as Dave) from 21% to 28%. Congress may consider, and could include, some or all of these proposals in connection with tax reform that may be undertaken. It is unclear whether these or similar changes will be enacted and, if enacted, how soon any such changes could take effect. The passage of any legislation as a result of these proposals and other similar changes in U.S. federal income tax laws could adversely affect Dave’s business and future profitability.

As a result of plans to expand Dave’s business operations, including to jurisdictions in which tax laws may not be favorable, its obligations may change or fluctuate, become significantly more complex or become subject to greater risk of examination by taxing authorities, any of which could adversely affect Dave’s after-tax profitability and financial results.

In the event that Dave’s business expands domestically or internationally, its effective tax rates may fluctuate widely in the future. Future effective tax rates could be affected by operating losses in jurisdictions where no tax benefit can be recorded under U.S. GAAP, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws. Factors that could materially affect Dave’s future effective tax rates include, but are not limited to: (a) changes in tax laws or the regulatory environment, (b) changes in accounting and tax standards or practices, (c) changes in the composition of operating income by tax jurisdiction, and (d) pre-tax operating results of Dave’s business.

Additionally, Dave may be subject to significant income, withholding, and other tax obligations in the United States and may become subject to taxation in numerous additional U.S. state and local and non-U.S. jurisdictions with respect to income, operations and subsidiaries related to those jurisdictions. Dave’s after-tax profitability and financial results could be subject to volatility or be affected by numerous factors, including (a) the availability of tax deductions, credits, exemptions, refunds and other benefits to reduce tax liabilities, (b) changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, if any, (c) the expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances, (d) the tax treatment of stock-based compensation, (e) changes in the relative amount of earnings subject to tax in the various jurisdictions, (f) the potential business expansion into, or otherwise becoming subject to tax in, additional jurisdictions, (g) changes to existing intercompany structure (and any costs related thereto) and business operations, (h) the extent of intercompany transactions and the extent to which taxing authorities in relevant jurisdictions respect those intercompany transactions, and (i) the ability to structure business operations in an efficient and competitive manner. Outcomes from audits or examinations by taxing authorities could have an adverse effect on Dave’s after-tax profitability and financial condition. Additionally, the IRS and several foreign tax authorities have increasingly focused attention on intercompany transfer pricing with respect to sales of products and services and the use of intangibles. Tax authorities could disagree with Dave’s intercompany charges,

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cross-jurisdictional transfer pricing or other matters and assess additional taxes. If Dave does not prevail in any such disagreements, Dave’s profitability may be affected.

Dave’s after-tax profitability and financial results may also be adversely affected by changes in relevant tax laws and tax rates, treaties, regulations, administrative practices and principles, judicial decisions and interpretations thereof, in each case, possibly with retroactive effect.

Dave’s ability to utilize its net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

In general, under Section 382 of the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) to offset future taxable income. The limitations apply if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in its equity ownership by certain stockholders over a three-year period. If Dave has experienced an ownership change at any time since its incorporation, Dave may be subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its existing NOLs and other tax attributes to offset taxable income or tax liability. In addition, future changes in Dave’s stock ownership, which may be outside of Dave’s control, may trigger an ownership change. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply to limit Dave’s use of accumulated state tax attributes. As a result, even if Dave earns net taxable income in the future, its ability to use its pre-change NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes to offset such taxable income or tax liability may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future income tax liability to Dave.

There is no guarantee that the Public Warrants will be in the money at the time they become exercisable, and they may expire worthless.

The exercise price for our warrants is $368.00 per share of Dave Class A Common Stock. There is no guarantee that the Public Warrants will be in the money following the time they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, and as such, they may expire worthless.

We may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders of Public Warrants with the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants. As a result, the exercise price of the Public Warrants could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of shares of Dave Class A Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Public Warrant could be decreased, all without a holder’s approval.

The Public Warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, and us. The Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the Public Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of Public Warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the Public Warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the Public Warrants, convert the Public Warrants into cash or stock (at a ratio different than initially provided), shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of Dave Class A Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Public Warrant.

We may redeem unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making their warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.32 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of the Dave Class A Common Stock equals or exceeds $576.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we give proper notice of such redemption and provided certain other conditions are met. If

40


and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force you (a) to exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (b) to sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants or (c) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your warrants. None of the Private Warrants will be redeemable by us for cash so long as they are held by the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees.

In addition, we may redeem your warrants after they become exercisable for a number of shares of Dave Class A Common Stock determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of the Dave Class A Common Stock. Any such redemption may have similar consequences to a cash redemption described above. In addition, such redemption may occur at a time when the warrants are “out-of-the-money,” in which case you would lose any potential embedded value from a subsequent increase in the value of the Dave Class A Common Stock had your warrants remained outstanding.

We have issued and will continue to issue a substantial number of additional shares of Dave Class A Common Stock under an employee incentive plan. Any such issuances dilute the interest of our stockholders and likely present other risks.

We have issued and will continue to issue additional shares of Dave Class A Common Stock under an employee incentive plan. The issuance of additional Dave Class A Common Stock:

may significantly dilute the equity interests of our investors;
could cause a change in control if a substantial number of shares of Dave Class A Common Stock are issued, which may affect, among other things, our ability to use our net operating loss carry forwards, if any, and could result in the resignation or removal of our present officers and directors; and
may adversely affect prevailing market prices for the Dave Class A Common Stock and/or the Public Warrants.

There can be no assurance that Dave Class A Common Stock will be able to comply with the listing standards of Nasdaq.

On January 5, 2023, Dave effected a 1-for-32 reverse stock split in order to regain compliance with Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement. There can be no assurance that Dave will be able to continue to comply with Nasdaq’s minimum bid price requirement or other Nasdaq listing standards. If The Nasdaq Stock Market delists the Dave Class A Common Stock from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:

a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
reduced liquidity for our securities;
a determination that the Dave Class A Common Stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in the Dave Class A Common Stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;
a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of Dave Class A Common Stock in the public market could occur at any time. This could cause the market price of the Dave Class A Common Stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Sales of a substantial number of the Dave Class A Common Stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could

41


reduce the market price of the Dave Class A Common Stock. As of March 1, 2023, our current officers and directors hold approximately 15% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock, including the 1,514,082 shares of Dave Class V Common Stock convertible into shares of Dave Class A Common Stock, which represents approximately 60.0% of the voting power of the outstanding shares of Common Stock.

Pursuant to the Investor Rights Agreement, certain holders are entitled to, among other things, certain registration rights, including the demand of up to three underwritten offerings and customary piggyback registration rights. Further, pursuant to the Subscription Agreements, we are also required to register additional shares of Dave Class A Common Stock. To satisfy these obligations, we previously registered up to 10,356,391 shares (on a post-split adjusted basis) of Dave Class A Common Stock, which also covers shares issuable upon exercise of the Public Warrants. The sale of these shares is likely to have an adverse effect on the trading price of the Dave Class A Common Stock.

If the Business Combination’s benefits do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.

If the benefits of the Business Combination do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of our securities prior to the Closing may decline. The market values of our securities at the time of the Business Combination may vary significantly from their prices on the date the Merger Agreement was executed, the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or the date on which our stockholders voted on the Business Combination.

In addition, fluctuations in the price of Dave securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. If an active market for our securities develops and continues, the trading price of Dave securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors that may affect the trading price of Dave securities include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to Dave;
changes in the market’s expectations about Dave’s operating results;
success of competitors;
Dave’s operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning Dave or the market in general;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to Dave;
Dave’s ability to market new and enhanced products and technologies on a timely basis;
changes in laws and regulations affecting Dave’s business;
Dave’s ability to meet compliance requirements;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving Dave;
changes in Dave’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
the volume of Dave Class A Common Stock available for public sale;
any major change in the Board or management;

42


sales of substantial amounts of Dave Class A Common Stock by Dave’s directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general and The Nasdaq Stock Market have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to Dave could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of Dave’s securities also could adversely affect its ability to issue additional securities and its ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about Dave, its business or its market, or if they change their recommendations regarding the Dave Class A Common Stock adversely, the price and trading volume of the Dave Class A Common Stock could decline.

The trading market for the Dave Class A Common Stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about Dave, its business, its market or its competitors. If any of the analysts who may cover Dave change their recommendation regarding the Dave Class A Common Stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about its competitors, the price of the Dave Class A Common Stock would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover Dave were to cease their coverage or fail to regularly publish reports on Dave, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the stock price or trading volume of Dave securities to decline.

The JOBS Act permits “emerging growth companies” like us to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act. As such, we take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including (a) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (b) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements and (c) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information they deem important. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year (i) following March 4, 2025, the fifth anniversary of our IPO, (ii) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion (as adjusted for inflation pursuant to SEC rules from time to time) or (iii) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of the shares of Dave Class A Common Stock that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our prior second fiscal quarter, and (b) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three year period.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as we are an emerging growth company. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

43


We cannot predict if investors will find the Dave Class A Common Stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find the Dave Class A Common Stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for the Dave Class A Common Stock and our share price may be more volatile.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

We operate out of our headquarters in Los Angeles, California. We maintain two sublease agreements for approximately 9,000 square feet located in Los Angeles, California. The subleases for the Los Angeles spaces are scheduled to expire in October 2023 and December 2025, respectively.

 

 

See Note 14, ”Commitments and Contingencies,” to our audited consolidated financial statements included in this report for information regarding legal proceedings in which we are involved.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of

Equity Securities. Market Information

Our shares of Dave Class A Common Stock and Public Warrants have traded on Nasdaq under the symbols “DAVE” and “DAVEW,” respectively, since January 6, 2022.

Holders of Record

As of December 31, 2022, there were 84 holders of record of Dave Class A common stock, one holder of record of our Class V common stock and two holders of record of the public warrants. The number of record holders is based upon the actual number of holders registered on our books at such date and does not include holders of shares in street name or persons, partnerships, associations, corporations or other entities identified in security position listings maintained by depository trust companies.

Dividend Policy

We have not paid any cash dividends on our Dave Class A Common Stock to date. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of our Board at such time. We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of our Dave Class A Common Stock in the foreseeable future.

Sales of Unregistered Securities

On March 21, 2022, the Company, issued a convertible note in the principal amount of $100.0 million. The terms of the convertible note are described in Note 10 Convertible Note Payable in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2022 contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.

Item 6. Reserved

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes related thereto which are included in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Certain information contained in the discussion and analysis set forth below includes forward-looking statements. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those set forth under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. On January 5, 2023, the Board of Directors approved an amendment to the Company’s certificate of incorporation to complete a 1-for-32 reverse stock split effective January 5, 2023. The effects of the reverse stock split have been reflected in the audited consolidated financial statements and the footnotes.

 

Overview

In the story of David vs. Goliath, the small underdog is able to outsmart and defeat his larger adversary. This is the spirit behind the name “Dave.” We have built an integrated financial services online platform that provides millions of Americans with seamless access to a variety of intuitive financial products at a fraction of the cost and with much higher speed to value than that of the legacy financial services incumbents, such as traditional banks and other financial institutions. Our mission is to build products that level the financial playing field. Our near-term strategy is focused on delivering a superior banking experience for anyone living paycheck to paycheck.

Based on our observation and analysis of Member data, legacy financial institutions charge high fees for consumer banking and other financial services products, which disproportionately burdens tens of millions of Americans who can least afford them. We see this dynamic playing out with our Members who we believe are on average paying between $300-$400 in overdraft, maintenance and other fees to their existing bank for basic checking services.

Further, we see a significant opportunity to address the broader short-term credit market. According to a report by FHN, legacy financial institutions charge approximately $30 billion in fees annually. The FHN estimates that financially “coping” and “vulnerable” populations pay over $120 billion a year in fees and interest for access to short-term credit. Our prospective Member opportunity is also significant. We estimate that our total addressable market consists of between 160 million to 180 million Americans who are in need of financial stability and are either not served or underserved by legacy financial institutions.

Dave offers a suite of innovative financial products aimed at helping our Members improve their financial health. To help Members avoid punitive overdraft fees and access short-term liquidity, Dave offers cash advances through its flagship 0% interest ExtraCash product. Through Dave Banking, we provide a digital checking account experience, seamlessly integrated with ExtraCash advances, with no hidden fees. With a Dave Banking account, Members have access to valuable tools for building long-term financial health, such as Goals savings accounts and customizable automatic round-up savings on debit spend transactions. We also help Members generate extra income for spending or emergencies through our Side Hustle product, where we present Members with supplemental work opportunities, and through our recently launched Surveys product, where Members can earn supplemental income by taking surveys. Our budgeting tool helps Members manage their upcoming bills to avoid overspending.


We have only begun to address the many inequities in financial services, but our progress to date demonstrates the demand for Dave to rewire the financial system for the everyday person. Since inception and through the date of this report, over 10 million Members have registered on the Dave app and over eight million of them have used at least one of our current products and we believe that we have a substantial opportunity to continue growing our Member base going forward. We strongly believe that the value proposition of our platform approach will continue to accelerate as a result of our data-driven perspective of our Members, allowing us to introduce products and services that address their changing life circumstances.

COVID-19 Impact

There are many uncertainties regarding the current global pandemic involving a novel strain of coronavirus, and we continue to closely monitor the impact of the pandemic on all aspects of our business, including how it has and may

46


in the future impact our Members, employees, suppliers, vendors, and business partners. The duration and magnitude of the continuing effects of COVID-19 and variants of the virus on our Members remain uncertain and dependent on various factors, including new variants of the virus and their severity and transmission rates, the nature of and duration for which preventive and containment measures are taken and remain in place, and the extent and effectiveness of such measures, including vaccination programs, and the type of stimulus measures and other policy responses that the U.S. government may further adopt. Moreover, the global macroeconomic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related impacts on Members and their demand for our products and services may persist for an indefinite period, even after the effects of the pandemic have subsided.

For more information concerning risks related to COVID-19, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Our business, financial condition and results of operations have and may continue to be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic or other similar epidemics or adverse public health developments, including government responses to such events” and “Risk Factors—Our ExtraCash advances expose us to credit risk of our Members and if our underwriting criteria for making advances is not sufficient to mitigate against this risk, our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected if a substantial number of our Members fail to repay the cash advance they receive.”

Comparability of Financial Information

Our future results of operations and financial position may not be comparable to historical results as a result of the consummation of the Business Combination.

Key Factors Affecting Operating Results

Our future operating results and cash flows are dependent upon a number of opportunities, challenges and other factors, including Member growth and activity, product expansion, competition, industry trends and general economic conditions.

Member Growth and Activity

We have made significant investments in our platform and our business is dependent on continued Member growth, as well as our ability to offer new products and services and generate additional revenues from our existing members using such additional products and services. Member growth and activity are critical to our ability to increase our scale, capture market share and earn an attractive return on our technology, product and marketing investments. Growth in Members and Member activity will depend heavily on our ability to continue to offer attractive products and services and the success of our marketing and Member acquisition efforts.

Product Expansion

We aim to develop and offer a best-in-class financial services platform with integrated products and services that improve the financial well-being of our Members. We have invested and continue to make significant investments in the development, improvement and marketing of our financial products and are focused on continual growth in the number of products we offer that are utilized by our Members.

Competition

We face competition from several financial services-oriented institutions. In our reportable segment, as well as in potential new lines of business, we may compete with more established institutions, some of which have more financial resources. We compete at multiple levels, including competition among other financial institutions and lenders in our ExtraCash business, competition for deposits in and debit card spending from our Dave Banking product from traditional banks and digital banking products and competition for subscribers to our personal financial management tools. Some of our competitors may at times seek to increase their market share by undercutting pricing terms prevalent in that market, which could adversely affect our market share for any of our products and services or require us to incur higher member acquisition costs.

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Key Components of Statements of Operations

Basis of presentation

Currently, we conduct business through one operating segment which constitutes a single reportable segment. For more information about our basis of presentation, refer to Note 2 in the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements of Dave included in this report.

Service based revenue, net

Service based revenue, net primarily consists of optional tips, optional express processing fees and subscriptions charged to Members, net of processor-related costs associated with advance disbursements. Service based revenue, net also consists of lead generation fees from our Side Hustle advertising partners as well as fees earned related to the Rewards Product for Members who make debit card spending transactions at participating merchants.

Transaction based revenue, net

Transaction based revenue, net primarily consists of interchange and ATM revenues from our Checking Product, net of interchange and ATM-related fees, fees earned from withdrawal-related transactions, volume support from a certain co-branded agreement, and deposit referrals and are recognized at the point in time the transactions occur, as the performance obligations are satisfied and the variable consideration is not constrained.

Operating expenses

We classify our operating expenses into the following five categories:

Provision for Unrecoverable Advances

The provision for unrecoverable advances to Members primarily consists of an allowance for unrecoverable advances at a level estimated to be adequate to absorb credit losses inherent in the outstanding advances receivable. We currently estimate the allowance balance required using historical loss and collections experience, and, if relevant, the nature and volume of the portfolio, economic conditions, and other factors such as cash received subsequent to period-end. Changes to the allowance have a direct impact on the provision for unrecoverable advances in the audited consolidated statement of operations. We consider advances more than 120 days past due or which become uncollectible based on information available to us as impaired. All impaired advances are deemed uncollectible and subsequently written off and are a direct reduction to the allowance for unrecoverable advances. Subsequent recoveries, if any, of Member advances written-off are recorded as a reduction to Member advances, resulting in a reduction to the allowance for unrecoverable advances and a corresponding reduction to the provision for unrecoverable advances in the audited consolidated statements of operations when collected.

Processing and Servicing Costs

Processing and servicing fees consist of fees paid to our processing partners for the recovery of advances, optional tips, optional express processing fees and subscriptions. These expenses also include fees paid for services to connect Members’ bank accounts to our application. Except for processing and servicing fees associated with advance disbursements which are recorded net against revenue, all other processing and service fees are expensed as incurred.

Advertising and Marketing

Advertising and marketing expenses consist primarily of fees we pay to our platform partners. We incur advertising, marketing and production-related expenses for online, social media and television advertising and for partnerships and promotional advertising. Advertising and marketing expenses are expensed as incurred although they typically deliver a benefit over an extended period.

Compensation and Benefits

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Compensation and benefits expenses represent the compensation, inclusive of stock-based compensation and benefits, that we provide to our employees and the payments we make to third-party contractors. While we have an in-house customer service function, we employ third-party contractors to conduct call center operations and handle routine customer service inquiries and support.

Other Operating Expenses

Other operating expenses consist primarily of technology and infrastructure (third-party Software as a Service “SaaS”), commitments to charity, transaction based costs (program expenses, association fees, processor fees, losses from Member-disputed transactions, bank card fees and fraud), depreciation and amortization of property and equipment and intangible assets, general and recurring legal fees, rent, certain sales tax related costs, office related expenses, public relations costs, professional service fees, travel and entertainment, and insurance. Costs associated with technology and infrastructure, rent, depreciation and amortization of our property and equipment and intangible assets, professional service fees, travel and entertainment, public relations costs, utilities, office-related expenses and insurance technology and infrastructure (third-party subscriptions), depreciation and amortization of property and equipment and intangible assets, general and recurring legal fees, rent, office-related expenses, public relations costs, professional service fees, travel and entertainment and insurance vary based upon our investment in infrastructure, business development, risk management and internal controls and are generally not correlated with our operating revenues or other transaction metrics.

Other (income) expenses

Other (income) expenses consist of interest income, interest expense, legal settlement and litigation expenses, other strategic financing and transactional expenses, gain on extinguishment of a liability, earnout liabilities fair value adjustments, derivative asset fair value adjustments, and changes in fair value of warrant liabilities.

Provision for income taxes

Provision for income taxes consists of the federal and state corporate income taxes accrued on income resulting from the sale of our services.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

Operating revenues

 

 

 

For Year Ended

 

 

Change

 

(in thousands, except for percentages)

 

December 31,

 

 

$

 

 

%

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2022/2021

 

 

2022/2021

 

Service based revenue, net

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     Processing fees, net

 

$

106,664

 

 

$

79,101

 

 

$

27,563

 

 

 

35

%

     Tips

 

 

61,951

 

 

 

45,106

 

 

 

16,845

 

 

 

37

%

     Subscriptions

 

 

19,146

 

 

 

17,203

 

 

 

1,943

 

 

 

11

%

     Other

 

 

1,099

 

 

 

772

 

 

 

327

 

 

 

42

%

Transaction based revenue, net

 

 

15,978

 

 

 

10,831

 

 

 

5,147

 

 

 

48

%

Total

 

$

204,838

 

 

$

153,013

 

 

$

51,825

 

 

 

34

%

 

Service based revenue, net—

Processing fees, net

Processing fees, net of processor costs associated with advance disbursements, for the year ended December 31, 2022 were $106.7 million, an increase of $27.6 million, or 35% from $79.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to increases in total advance volume from approximately $1,413

49


million to approximately $2,709 million year over year along with average advance amounts that increased from $104 to $144 as of the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2022, respectively. Processing fees tend to increase as advance volume increases, but may not always trend ratably as processing fees vary depending on the total amount of the advance. The percentage of Members that chose to pay a processing fee to expedite an advance remained consistent for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021. The average processing fees Members paid to expedite these advances increased modestly for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021.

Tips

Tips for the year ended December 31, 2022 were $62.0 million, an increase of $16.8 million, or 37%, from $45.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to increases in total advance volume from approximately $1,413 million to approximately $2,709 million year over year along with average advance amounts that increased from $104 to $144 as of the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2022, respectively. Tips tend to increase as advance volume increases, but may not always trend ratably as tips often vary depending on the total amount of the advance. The percentage of Members that chose to leave a tip decreased slightly for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. The average amount of tip Members chose to leave increased for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021.

Subscriptions

Subscriptions for the year ended December 31, 2022 were $19.1 million, an increase of $1.9 million, or 11%, from $17.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to higher subscription engagement with Members on our platform.

Other

Other revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased by $0.3 million, or 42%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to increases in average revenue per lead related to amounts received from our Side Hustle advertising partners.

Transaction based revenue, net—Transaction based revenue, net for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $16.0 million, an increase of $5.1 million, or 48%, from $10.8 million, for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily attributable to the growth in Members engaging with our Checking Product and corresponding growth in the number of transactions initiated by Members.

Operating expenses

 

 

 

For Year Ended

 

 

Change

 

(in thousands, except for percentages)

 

December 31,

 

 

$

 

 

%

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2022/2021

 

 

2022/2021

 

Provision for unrecoverable advances

 

$

66,266

 

 

$

32,174

 

 

$

34,092

 

 

 

106

%

Processing and servicing costs

 

 

31,946

 

 

 

23,459

 

 

 

8,487

 

 

 

36

%

Advertising and marketing

 

 

69,038